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Post-mod against secularisation theory: religion is taking privatised form as religion is now not an obligation, only true believers attend church= new type of religion
Davie: Small number of professional clergy worshipping for a large group
Davie: rejects idea that modernisation affects all societies similarly, there are different patterns of religion
Spiritual Shopping: we are a society where greater equality has led to loss of power to enforce religion, younger people have no fixed identity to religion = individual consumerism
Hervieu-Leger: Loss of collective memory-religion used to be passed through generations
2 religious types are emerging: pilgrims (individual path e.g. New Age) and converts (joining religious groups that offer strong solidarity e.g. Ethnic minority churches.)
'Jesus in Disneyland': traditional religion gives way to new forms to continue its globalisation: Relocation, Consumersim & Re-enchantment
Lyon: movement for religious ideas across nations. Media gives access to remote rligions, it 'disembedds' ideas, relocating them e.g 'televangelism' is TV based. Religion becomes de-institutionalised (detatched from institutions.)
Lyon: we construct our identities through what we consume-spriritual shopping. Pick + Mix to suit our lives = 'sphere of consumerism'.
Lyon: growth of unconventional beliefs and practices
Stark and Bainbridge
Religious Market Theory: criticises secularisation theory for having 'distoreted view'. people are naturally religious BUT people make rational choices based on cost/benefits. religious decline = revival & renewal and competition =improvement e.g. in US religion is strong because a healthy market exists
Norris and Inglehart
Criticise Stark and Bainbridge: high participation exists in Ctholic countries where church has near monopoly e.g. Venezuela
Norris and Inglehart
Existential Security Theory: reject market theory as doesn't explain variation in religosity; reasons for variations= different degrees of existential security:'The feeling that survival is secure enough to be taken for granted'.insecurity = demand for religion explaining why poorer countries have high participation and west = secular
Gill and Lundegaarde
the more a country spends on welfare the lower its levels of participation. The West is secular because it's secure.