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God and globalisation in India: studies how Hinduism legitimated rise of new Hindu 'ultra-nationalism' and prosperity of the Middle Class
Globalisation in India: Indians are becoming more educated, especially the urban and educated as a result of middle class ambivalence about new found wealth- stemmed from tension towards the idea that Hindus are meant to renounce materialism. This was helped by telegurus preaching that wealth isn't bad
There are now business-friendly versions of Hinduism, justifying middle class position and a triumphalist version of Indian nationalism in which india's success in global markets is promoted to be due to superiority of 'Hindu values'
Pentecostalism in Latin America:'functional equivalent' to calvinism promoting capitalism pentecostalism requires ascetic life which is necessary to promote economic devlopment
Pentecostalism (global and local): Christianity globalised by expanding to US/Africa incorporating local beliefse.e spirit posession in Africa leading to 'Africanisation' of christianity rather than dissappearance of old religions
Giddens: traditionalists who wish to return to origins of religion, there is literal truth in the text, other religions are diluted/distorted, they alone possess the truth, rely upon guardians of tradition e.g. clergy to interpret and determine meanings of religion
globalisation undermines traditional norms.
Giddens: way of thinking that embraces modernity, tolerand and constantly reflecting/modifying beliefs: 'reflective thinking', lifestyle is a personal choice, self-improvement rather than submission to authority
Main cause of fundamentalism: fundamentalists believe globalisation threatens their beliefs
Fundamentalism is refined to monotheistic religions (Islam/Christianity) as polytheistic religions have no single authoritative text
Two types of fundamentalism: West (reaction to change within society e.g. New Christian Right/ISUS) and Third World (reaction to changes being imposed from outside e.g. BokoHaram believe Western values are being imposed.)
Cultural Defence: Religion is used to protect national identity: Poland (Catholic church = rallying point for opposition against communism 1945-89 e.g spporting free trade union movement) Iran (in 60s+70s Islam =focus for resistance of change by pro-Western regime)
Clash of Civilisations: religious global conflicts have intensifies since fall of communism as globalisation makes contact between civilisations easier increaing likelyhood of old conflicts re-emerging. Religion is a major source of identity which creates hostility.
It's the 'us and them' attitude; he predicts growing conflicet between the 'west and the rest'.
Criticises Hunnington arguing his work is oreintalism: western ideology that sterotypes Eastern nations (especially muslims) as inferior fanatics
World Value Survey
This survey suggests clashesare over sexuality as west and the rest have very different views on this, it's not over democray as both nations have support for dmocracy
Norris and Inglehart
The disagreement over 'expressions values' = clashes