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Modood et al
Some ethnic groups have language problems which reduce their employment chances. Found that: 3/5 of Bangladeshi women did not speak English. Half Pakistani women did not speak English. South Asian women are frequently portrayed as passive victims and they tend to have poorer educational qualifications than men. Pakistani and Bangladeshi women have the lowest economic activity although a lot of this may be hidden in the form of ‘home working’. These disadvantages are often linked to cultural traditions.
Suggests that black youths are more likely to be in single parent families. (lack of positive role models) Young black Afro Caribbean males follow the ‘hyper masculine’ role models often shown in rap music videos on MTV. This helps them to create a ‘Gangsta’ identity where they achieve status amongst their peer group for wearing the right designer clothes and trainers, through being aggressive and through not working hard at school.
Cultural explanations can be applied to the economic situation of Asians and African Caribbean. – Asian groups are more likely to be self-employed or small business owners. – East African Sikhs are often described as having a strong ‘spirit of enterprise’ and strong supportive family networks which favour academic success. Asian immigrants brought with them strong entrepreneurial traditions in contrast to the bitter experiences of colonialism and slavery amongst the African Caribbean.