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Integer

The set of whole numbers and their opposites.

Rational Number

Any number that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers. Example; 6 can be expressed as 6/1, and 0.5 as 1/2.

numerator

the top part of a fraction

Denominator

the bottom part of a fraction

proper fraction

rational numbers where the numerator is less than the denominator

improper fraction

a fraction whose numerator is larger than the denominator

equivalent fractions

fractions that have the same value

reducing

writing a fraction in lowest terms

simplest form

a fraction that is in lowest terms

lowest common denominator (LCD)

the least common multiple of two denominators

Common Denominator

a denominator that is the same in two or more fractions

additive inverse

the opposite of a number

absolute value

The distance of a number from zero on a number line; shown by | |

least common multiple (LCM)

a multiple that is shared between two or more numbers that is lower than all the other common multiples

commutative property of addition

If the order of the terms changes, the sum stays the same.

associative property of addition

When the grouping of terms changes, the sum stays the same.

Additive identity property

The sum of any number and 0 is the number.

invisible denominator

every whole number is actually over 1, but it isn't written

commutative property of multiplication

If the order of factors changes, the product stays the same.

associative property of multiplication

When the grouping of factors changes, the products stays the same.

Multiplicative identity property

The product of any number and 1 is the number.

distributive property

Multiplying a sum by a number is the same as multiplying each term by the number and then adding (or subtracting ) the products.

identity element

a number in which, when combined with a mathematical operation on a number, leaves the number unchanged

inverse operation

Operations that undo each other

opposite

Two numbers that are an equal distance from zero on a number line; also called additive inverse.

reciprocal

One of two numbers whose product is 1; it is also called multiplicative inverse.

multiplicative inverse

reciprocal of a number

Square Root

when multiplying a number by itself to get a square number

Principal Square Root

the nonnegative square root of a number

√

radical sign

Perfect Square

the number that forms when two same numbers are multiplied together

Irrational Number

A number that cannot be written as a fraction with a numerator and a denominator that are integers. The decimal representation of a rational number either ends or repeats.

guess and check

problem-solving strategy where you guess a solution and plug in the number to check for correctness

working backwards

problem-solving strategy where you are giving a solution and you work in inverse order to get the original problem