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Laws of thermodynamics
_______ describe the essential role of energy and explain and predict the direction of changes in matter.
property of matter or the factor that determines the direction of heat flow
Plots the number of particles versus the kinetic energy of the particle.
The transfer of energy between objects that are at different temperatures.
Heat will transfer from an object with _______ temperature to an object with _______ temperature.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
States that energy spontaneously spreads from regions of higher concentrations to regions of lower concentration.
(energy, pressure, volume, temperature)
Standard state conditions
Gases at 1 atm, all liquids pure, all solids pure, all solutions 1 M, energy of formation in its normal state is zero, temperature almost alway 25 C.
In an exothermic reaction, the change in enthalpy is _______. The energy of the reactants is greater than the products.
In an endothermic reaction, the change in enthalpy is _______. The energy of the products is greater than the reactants.
ΣΔΗ°products - ΣΔΗ°reactants=
the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms
Bonds broken are the _______ bonds.
Bonds formed are the _______ bonds.
Phase changes occur because of changes in _______ and/or _______
As temperature increases, the vapor pressure of a liquid _______.
When the vapor pressure of a liquid becomes equal to the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere, the liquid _______.
More stable, lower
The intermolecular forces within a solid are _______ and have _______ energy than the forces within a liquid. Energy is released in the freezing process.
Intermolecular forces become _______ when a gas condenses, and energy is _______.
In the phase diagram for substances other than water, the solid-liquid equilibrium line slopes _______. When pressure is increased, it changes from liquid to solid.
In the phase diagram for water, the solid-liquid equilibrium line slopes _______. When pressure is increased, water changes from solid to liquid.
Water's hydrogen bonds form a _______ when it freezes, forcing the molecules to remain farther apart in ice than in water.
The solid phase of water is _______ than the liquid phase, causing ice to float on water and accounts for the preservation of marine life.
If a reaction can be described as a series of steps, then ΔΗ for the overall reaction is the sum of the ΔΗ values for all of the steps.
A measure of how much the temperature of an object is raised when it absorbs heat. C=ΔΗ/ΔΤ
An object with a _______ heat capacity can absorb a lot of heat without undergoing much of a change in temperature.
A force with a big mass has a _______ acceleration
Amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of material 1 degree Celsius.
The measure of a system's thermal energy per unit temperature that is unavailable for doing useful work.
Accommodative response for myope is _______ in CL compared to equivalent spectacle correction
Defined as as solid crystal at 0 K. All substances will have some positive value for entropy.
Spectacle Rx is _______ than CL Rx for myopes
Gibbs free energy
δW_nonmechanical ≤ -dA - pdV ≤ -d(A + pV) ≤ -dG
In an voltaic cell, is the redox reaction spontaneous or nonspontaneous?
If ΔG is positive, the reaction is _______ .
If ΔG is zero, the reaction is _______.
ΣΔG°products - ΣΔG°reactants=
In general, nature likes to move to states of _______ energy and _______ disorder. Spontaneous processes must result in decreasing enthalpy or increasing entropy or both.
Describes the heat content of a substance (?H)
If E° is negative ΔG° is positive and the reaction is _______.