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properties of gas
The pressure of a gas in a fixed volume also varies with temperature. When the temperature is increased, the kinetic energy of the molecules increases, causing more frequent and more energetic collisions of the molec…
_______ is the measure of force exerted on a unit area of surface
units of pressure
1 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 14.69 Ibs/in²
atmospheric pressure
…cury 760 mm high at 0°C.
Boyle's law
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases., P1V1=P2V2
Charles' law
At constant pressure the volume of a fixed mass of any gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature
Avogadro's law
Equal volumes of different gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules.
Real Gases i.e ideal gas exceptions
When conditions are such that the gas molecules are crowded closely together (high pressure…
Boyle Law example
When Boyle doubled the pressure on a specific quantity of a gas, keeping the temperature constant, the volume was reduced to one-half the original volume; when he tripled the pressure on the system, the…
Intestinal -> flatulence
.What are two types of gas?
What are non-pharmalogic therapies to utilize for patients experiencing gas?
Simethicone (GasX, Mylanta, Mylicon, etc)
What are two pharmacotherapies indicated for intestinal gas?
What is the MOA of Simethicone?
Decreases surface tension of gas bubbles in GI tract
How is Simethicone dosed?
Follow directions on box
No systemic absorption
What are 4 (+) of Simethicone?
Hypersensitivity to silicone
What is the contraindications of Simethicone?
What is the MOA of a-Galactosidase?
It is an enzyme that catalyzes catabolism of oligosaccharides into digestible sugars (sucrose, glucose)
How is a-Galactosidase dosed?
Orally with troublesome food. Follow directions on box
Decreases flatus
What are 2 (+) of a-Galactosidase?
Less than 12 yrs
What is a-Galactosidase contraindicated for?
Pregnant or breastfeeding
When would you refer a patient presenting with gas to a provider?
What is lactose intolerance?
Lower or impaired activity of lactase enzyme
Small intestine:
In individuals who are lactose intolerant, what processes occur in the small intestine? in the large intestine?
Is the patient vomiting within 1 hour?
What considerations regarding lactose intolerance should be made before starting a treatment plan?
Digestive enzyme: lactase
What treatment options are available to individuals with lactose intolerance?
What is the MOA of lactase?
Catalyzes the catabolism of lactose into galactose and glucose
How is lactase dosed?
See package label. Typically 1-2 caps with meal.
What is pressure?
Pressure is the force exerted per unit area of surface.
What is a barometer?
A barometer is a device for measuring the pressure of the atmosphere.
What does the mercury barometer also do?
The mercury barometer also is a manometer which a device that measures the pressure of a gas or liquid in a vessel.
Exactly 1 atm is equal to 760 mmHg.
What is the relation of millimeters of mercury (mmHg) to atmosphere (atm)?
What is mmHg also called?
mmHg is also called torr.
What is the SI unit of pressure?
The SI unit of pressure is pascal (Pa).
What does Boyle's Law state?
Boyle's Law states that the volume of a sample of gas at a given temperature varies inversely with the applied pressure.
What does Charles's Law state?
Charles's Law states that the volume occupied by any sample of gas at a constant pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.
What does STP stand for?
STP stands for standard, temperature and pressure.
What is Avogadro's Law?
Avogadro's Law states that equal volumes of any two gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules.
What is the molar gas volume at ATP?
At ATP, the molar gas volume is found to be 22.4 L/mol.
What is the molar gas constant (R)?
The molar gas constant (R) is the constant of proportionality relating the molar volume of a gas to T/P.
What is Dalton's law of partial pressures?
Dalton's law of partial pressures says that the sum of the partial pressures of all the different gases in a mixture is equal to the total pressure of the mixture.
What is the partial pressure of gas?
The partial pressure of gas is the pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mixture.
What is Avogadro's number?
Avogadro's number is 6.022 X 1023
What is force equal to?
Force is equal to mass x constant acceleration of gravity.
What are the postulates of the Kinetic Theory?
The postulates of the Kinetic Theory are gases are composed of molecules whose size is negligible compared with the average distance between them, molecules move randomly in straight lines in all directions and at var…
What is root-mean-square molecular speed?
The root-mean-square molecular speed is the average molecular speed equal to the speed of a molecule having the average molecular kinetic energy.
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the process whereby a gas spreads out through another gas to occupy the space uniformly.
What is effusion?
Effusion is the process in which a gas flows through a small hole in a container.
What is Graham's law of effusion?
Graham's law of effusion states that the rate of effusion of gas molecules from a particular hole is inversely proportional to the square root of the molecular weight of the gas at constant temperature and pressure.
What does van der Waals equation do?
Van der Waals equation accounts for deviations from ideal behavior.
0.08206 L atm/ mol kPa
Name a poisonous gas - compounds acceptable
Answers may vary - may need to check online
Name one postulate of kinetic theory.
composed of molecules with negligible size; move randomly, forces of attraction.
If the pressure of a gas is increased, what must have happened to the volume?
neither, the rate of diffusion will be equal for both containers.
If a gas is of equal concentration in two connected containers, which way will it diffuse?