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Isothermal heat addition
Heat comes in, Turbine
Piston goes down with open space, Turbine
Isothermal heat rejection
Heat comes out, Compression
Piston goes up with small space, Compression
Automobile heat engine ideal
height area of cylinder
width area of cylinder
Otto Cycle: Actual, 4-stroke, spark-ignition
Intake Stroke --piston goes down as gas come in
Mean Effective Pressure (MEP)
As piston goes up, MEP goes up because high pressure from compressed gas in small area. As piston goes down, MEP goes down because low pressure from expanded gas in big area.
Volume area in cylinder when piston is down.
Volume area in cylinder when piston is up.
Vaper-powered cycle. Water is heated in boiler, goes to turbine and makes kinetic energy, goes to condenser/process heater which converts to water, pump takes water to boiler.
Production of more than one useful form of energy from some energy source.
energy input in form of heat; supplied by steam; energy transferred to steam by burning coal, oil, natural gas, or another furnace fuel.
A plant that reduces electricity while meeting process-heat requirements.
as high as 80%
What is actual utilization factor of Cogeneration Plant?
Combined Gas-Vapor Power Cycle
Involves a gas power cycle topping a vapor power cycle.
What is the greatest interest?
Gas-turbine (Brayton) cycle topping a steam-turbine (Rankine) cycle which has highest efficiency together than separate.
What is Combined gas-steam cycle
Gas-turbine cycle at top and steam power cycle at bottom.
What is the thermal efficiency of Combined cycle?
allows heat to pass through
A thermally isolating wall. In a closed adiabatic system, ∆U = w.
2 objects with different To, end with same Tf
An object at rest stays at rest, an object in motion stays in motion, UNLESS an UNBALANCED force acts upon it.
Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass
Every action has and opposite re-action
Constant temperature change
A process that can be reversed by an infinitely small change in a variable (an infinitesimal change).
no irreversible engine operating between 2 res at constant temp can have great 'e' than a reversible engine operating between those same temps
uses work (power chord) to make item go from cold to hot
A machine that uses work to drive heat flow