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a measure of the random motions of the components of a substance (average kinetic energy)
0 Kelvin, no movement of particles
the transfer of energy due to a temperature difference
a hot coffee mug
When objects at different temperatures come in contact, energy will always be transferred from the higher-temperature object to the lower-temperature object until both objects reach the same temperature
Substances that do not conduct thermal energy very well
electrons are loosely bound to the nucleus making it easier to collect electrons
the process whereby heat is transferred by the mass movement of molecules from one place to the other
energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles
Specific Heat Capacity
quantity of (thermal) energy required to raise temperature by one degree per unit mass of a substance
A device in which heat transfer is monitored by recording the change in temperature that it produces, then using q = C₋cal∆T, where C₋cal is the heat capacity of the calorimeter.
a unit of energy equal to 1,000 calories
a material that reduces or prevents the transmission of heat (or sound or electricity)
a machine that transform heat into mechanical power: steam heating.
External combustion engine
An engine powered by fuel burned outside the engine.
Internal combustion engine
a heat engine in which the fuel burns inside the engine
The excessive heating of a body of water