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Level 166

Wave Phenomena, Forces & Fields,

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A change in position (delta p).
a speed in a particular direction.
Units: cm/s, m/s, mi/hr, km/s ...
Newton's 1st law of motion
An object continues in a state of rest, of uniform motion in a straight line, unless acted upon by an unbalance force
Condition for translational equilibrium:
there is no resultant force on the object in any direction
Newton's 2nd Law of motion
a resultant force acting on a body equals the rate of change of momentum of the body
Linear Momentum
Linear momentum of an object is its mass times its velocity. Since momentum does not have a unit
a large change in momentum over a short period of time
Law of conservation of linear momentum
the total momentum of a closed system is constant if the net external force acting on the system is zero
Newton's 3rd law of motion
For every action (force), there is an equal and opposite reaction (force)
Principle of conservation of energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another
(physics) the rate of doing work
_______ compares the amount of output work to the input work.
Temperature is...
the concept which determines the direction of thermal energy transfer between 2 objects
Internal Energy of a substance
total potential energy & random kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance.
Specific Heat Capacity
quantity of (thermal) energy required to raise temperature by one degree per unit mass of a substance
Thermal/Heat capacity
quantity of (thermal) energy required to raise the temperature of a body by one degree
Specific Latent Heat
thermal energy absorbed or released per unit mass of a substance at constant temperature during s phase change
Assumptions of the kinetic model of an ideal gas
an ideal gas obeys the ideal gas equation for all values of pressure volume and temperature.
Measurement of the average kinetic energy of a substance. Not energy, but a representation of the kinetic energy of molecules.
Maximum distance a wave varies from its rest position.
Another important property of an oscillation system is the Time Period (T) of the oscillation. The time period of the oscillation is simply the time taken for the oscillation to repeat itself. That is…
phase difference
_______ is the difference in phase angles at any given time
SHM conditions
the acceleration on the body is directed towards the equilibrium position, and is proportional to it's body's displacement from equilibrium
An influence that causes an oscillating object to lose energy and eventually come to a rest on its own.
Critical Damping
damping which stops the motion of an oscillating particle in minimum time.
Natural Frequency
frequency at which an object will vibrate if disturbed
Forced Oscillations
Occurs when a periodic force is applied
a phenomenon that occurs when two objects naturally vibrate at the same frequency; the sound produced by one object causes the other object to vibrate
Statement on energy transfer involving Progressive Waves
these waves transfer energy, and there is no net motion of the medium through which the wave travels
Displacement (SHM)
distance of an oscillating particle in a given direction from it's mean
Wave Speed (c)
rate at which energy is propagated
distance between two consecutive crests which are in phase with one another
A surface through Crests & normal to the direction of propagation of the wave
Intensity (waves)
the rate of flow of energy across the cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation
Statement about speed of EM waves
all EM waves travel at the same speed in vaccuum (3.00*10^(8)m.^(s-1))
State Snell's Law
n1xsinθ1 = n1xsinθ2
principle of superposition
2 or more wave pass through a given point in space at the same time, and the displacements of individual waves are added together to arrive at resultant displacement
Constructive interference
Bright bands are
Destructive interference
Dark bands are
Conditions for constructive interference
path difference = nλ
Electrical Potential Difference (ΔV)
work done per unit charge to move a small positive charge between two points.
Electronvolt (eV)
work done in moving an electron through a ΔV of one volt.
Conditions for destructive interference
path difference = (n+1/2)λ
a force upon an object that slows down motion
Ohm's Law
for ohmic resistors: current is proportional to voltage at constant temperature. (V = RI)
Law of Conservation of charge
the total charge of a closed system is constant
Coulomb's Law
The electric force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of the two charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them, and directed along the line joining…
Electrical field strength
force per unit charge felt by a positive test charge placed in the field.
Magnetic fields can be created by...
these fields can be created by moving charges or current in a wire
Magnitude: B = F/ILsinθ
Magnitude & Direction of a magnetic field
Newton's universal law of gravitation
every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force along a line joining them; the force is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
Gravitational Field Strength (2 defs)
g = GM/r^(2) g = -ΔV/Δr
Escape Speed
v= sqrt(2GM/R)
Basis of Projectile Motion
vertical & horizontal components of velocity for a projectile in a uniform field can be treated separately
Gravitational Potential
work done per unit mass by an external agent in bringing a mass from infinity to that point without a change in kinetic energy.
gravitational potential energy
an icicle hanging from a rooftop
Gravitational Potential Gradient
the negative of he gradient of the gravitational potential graph is equal to the gravitational field strength (g).
Relation between field lines and equipotential surfaces.
they are always at right angles to each other.
Root Mean Squared voltage (Vrms)
value of direct voltage that gives the same power output as the average power output of an A/C power supply.
Kepler's 3rd Law
T^2 is proportional to R^3
Electrical Potential
work done per unit charge in bringing a small positive test charge from infinity to that point in space.
Electrical Potential Energy
work done in bringing a small positive test charge from infinity to that point in space.
Electrical Potential gradient
the negative of the gradient of the electrical potential graph is equal to the electrical field strength
Magnetic Flux
Φ = B.A.cosθ
Magnetic Flux Linkeage
N.Φ or N(B.A.cosθ)
Faraday's Law
the induce emf is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux (linkeage)
Lenz's Law
the direction of the emf induced by the change in magnetic flux (linkeage) is such that it opposes the change producing it.
rms voltage : Vmax/sqrt(2)
Relations for rms (voltage and current)
Raleigh Criterion
in order for 2 images to be resolved , the central maximum of one diffraction pattern must be at least coincident with the first minimum of the other.
Polarized Light
light that has been filtered so that all of its waves are parallel to each other
Brewster's law
when the angle of incidence is equal to the polarizing angle (called Brewster's angle, Φ) the angle of reflection and the angle of refraction are at right angles to each other
Statement about gravitation & centripetal force
gravitation provides the centripetal force for circular orbital motion.
Ideal Gas equation
PV = nRT
Constant temperature change
constant pressure
Temperature is constant. dU = 0; dQ = dW
different temperature
electromagnetic wave
a transverse wave that involves the transfer of electric and magnetic energy
transmission (EM)
radiation/energy that is receved directly after the EM wave has moved through the meium in question
scattering (EM)
EM waves are scattered in all directions due to interaction of the wave with particles in the medium.
absorption (EM)
loss of energy to the medium through which an EM wave travels, resulting in an increase in T of the medium
refractive index
ratio of speed of EM wave in a vacuum to speedof light in the medium