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displacement

A change in position (delta p).

Velocity

a speed in a particular direction.

Speed

Units: cm/s, m/s, mi/hr, km/s ...

Newton's 1st law of motion

An object continues in a state of rest, of uniform motion in a straight line, unless acted upon by an unbalance force

Condition for translational equilibrium:

there is no resultant force on the object in any direction

Newton's 2nd Law of motion

a resultant force acting on a body equals the rate of change of momentum of the body

Linear Momentum

Linear momentum of an object is its mass times its velocity. Since momentum does not have a unit

impulse

a large change in momentum over a short period of time

Law of conservation of linear momentum

the total momentum of a closed system is constant if the net external force acting on the system is zero

Newton's 3rd law of motion

For every action (force), there is an equal and opposite reaction (force)

Principle of conservation of energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another

Power

(physics) the rate of doing work

Efficiency

_______ compares the amount of output work to the input work.

Temperature is...

the concept which determines the direction of thermal energy transfer between 2 objects

Internal Energy of a substance

total potential energy & random kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance.

Specific Heat Capacity

quantity of (thermal) energy required to raise temperature by one degree per unit mass of a substance

Thermal/Heat capacity

quantity of (thermal) energy required to raise the temperature of a body by one degree

Specific Latent Heat

thermal energy absorbed or released per unit mass of a substance at constant temperature during s phase change

Assumptions of the kinetic model of an ideal gas

an ideal gas obeys the ideal gas equation for all values of pressure volume and temperature.

temperature

Measurement of the average kinetic energy of a substance. Not energy, but a representation of the kinetic energy of molecules.

amplitude

Maximum distance a wave varies from its rest position.

period

Another important property of an oscillation system is the Time Period (T) of the oscillation. The time period of the oscillation is simply the time taken for the oscillation to repeat itself. That is…

Frequency

#cycles/second

phase difference

_______ is the difference in phase angles at any given time

SHM conditions

the acceleration on the body is directed towards the equilibrium position, and is proportional to it's body's displacement from equilibrium

Damping

An influence that causes an oscillating object to lose energy and eventually come to a rest on its own.

Critical Damping

damping which stops the motion of an oscillating particle in minimum time.

Natural Frequency

frequency at which an object will vibrate if disturbed

Forced Oscillations

Occurs when a periodic force is applied

Resonance

a phenomenon that occurs when two objects naturally vibrate at the same frequency; the sound produced by one object causes the other object to vibrate

Statement on energy transfer involving Progressive Waves

these waves transfer energy, and there is no net motion of the medium through which the wave travels

Displacement (SHM)

distance of an oscillating particle in a given direction from it's mean

Wave Speed (c)

rate at which energy is propagated

Wavelength

distance between two consecutive crests which are in phase with one another

Wavefront

A surface through Crests & normal to the direction of propagation of the wave

Intensity (waves)

the rate of flow of energy across the cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation

Statement about speed of EM waves

all EM waves travel at the same speed in vaccuum (3.00*10^(8)m.^(s-1))

State Snell's Law

n1xsinθ1 = n1xsinθ2

principle of superposition

2 or more wave pass through a given point in space at the same time, and the displacements of individual waves are added together to arrive at resultant displacement

Constructive interference

Bright bands are

Destructive interference

Dark bands are

Conditions for constructive interference

path difference = nλ

Electrical Potential Difference (ΔV)

work done per unit charge to move a small positive charge between two points.

Electronvolt (eV)

work done in moving an electron through a ΔV of one volt.

Conditions for destructive interference

path difference = (n+1/2)λ

resistance

a force upon an object that slows down motion

Ohm's Law

for ohmic resistors: current is proportional to voltage at constant temperature. (V = RI)

Law of Conservation of charge

the total charge of a closed system is constant

Coulomb's Law

The electric force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of the two charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them, and directed along the line joining…

Electrical field strength

force per unit charge felt by a positive test charge placed in the field.

Magnetic fields can be created by...

these fields can be created by moving charges or current in a wire

Magnitude: B = F/ILsinθ

Magnitude & Direction of a magnetic field

Newton's universal law of gravitation

every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force along a line joining them; the force is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

Gravitational Field Strength (2 defs)

g = GM/r^(2) g = -ΔV/Δr

Escape Speed

v= sqrt(2GM/R)

Basis of Projectile Motion

vertical & horizontal components of velocity for a projectile in a uniform field can be treated separately

Gravitational Potential

work done per unit mass by an external agent in bringing a mass from infinity to that point without a change in kinetic energy.

gravitational potential energy

an icicle hanging from a rooftop

Gravitational Potential Gradient

the negative of he gradient of the gravitational potential graph is equal to the gravitational field strength (g).

Relation between field lines and equipotential surfaces.

they are always at right angles to each other.

Root Mean Squared voltage (Vrms)

value of direct voltage that gives the same power output as the average power output of an A/C power supply.

Kepler's 3rd Law

T^2 is proportional to R^3

Electrical Potential

work done per unit charge in bringing a small positive test charge from infinity to that point in space.

Electrical Potential Energy

work done in bringing a small positive test charge from infinity to that point in space.

Electrical Potential gradient

the negative of the gradient of the electrical potential graph is equal to the electrical field strength

Magnetic Flux

Φ = B.A.cosθ

Magnetic Flux Linkeage

N.Φ or N(B.A.cosθ)

Faraday's Law

the induce emf is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux (linkeage)

Lenz's Law

the direction of the emf induced by the change in magnetic flux (linkeage) is such that it opposes the change producing it.

rms voltage : Vmax/sqrt(2)

Relations for rms (voltage and current)

Raleigh Criterion

in order for 2 images to be resolved , the central maximum of one diffraction pattern must be at least coincident with the first minimum of the other.

Polarized Light

light that has been filtered so that all of its waves are parallel to each other

Brewster's law

when the angle of incidence is equal to the polarizing angle (called Brewster's angle, Φ) the angle of reflection and the angle of refraction are at right angles to each other

Statement about gravitation & centripetal force

gravitation provides the centripetal force for circular orbital motion.

Ideal Gas equation

PV = nRT

Isochoric

Constant temperature change

Isobaric

constant pressure

Isothermal

Temperature is constant. dU = 0; dQ = dW

Adiabatic

different temperature

electromagnetic wave

a transverse wave that involves the transfer of electric and magnetic energy

transmission (EM)

radiation/energy that is receved directly after the EM wave has moved through the meium in question

scattering (EM)

EM waves are scattered in all directions due to interaction of the wave with particles in the medium.

absorption (EM)

loss of energy to the medium through which an EM wave travels, resulting in an increase in T of the medium

refractive index

ratio of speed of EM wave in a vacuum to speedof light in the medium