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kinematics

branch of mechanics that explains the "what" and "how" of motion

motion

An object is moving if its position relative to a fixed point is changing.

subscripts

clarify variables specific cases of variables

Greek letters

have special meanings and functions, constants and variables

frame of reference

assists one in physics in which one chooses a place (point) a measure it against changes in position.

Distance

a path taken and always a positive number

displacement

A change in position (delta p).

Speed

Units: cm/s, m/s, mi/hr, km/s ...

Velocity

a speed in a particular direction.

epistemology

a way of knowing

empircism

truth comes from comparing out ideas with the world

reductionism

to understand a complicated whole you must first understand the sum of their parts

scientific theory

fits together many hypothesis and suggests more

matter, motion, causes

What are the core concepts of physics

theoretical physics and experimental physics

What are the two vantage points on physics

theoretical physics

starts from math and predicts what will happen

experimental physics

starts with reality and suggests why it is

units of measure

set a standard and let us measure in between the discrete counting units

precisions

repeatedly getting the same value

scalar

a physical quantity that has magnitude but no direction

vector

a displacement distinguished by magnitude and direction but not by location.

acceleration

(physics) a rate of change of velocity

Instantaneous Speed

Magnitude of instantaneous velocity

Average Speed

Distance traveled divided by the time required to cover the distance

Constant Acceleration

The acceleration of an object is proportional to force (F = ma) - thus, if there is a constant force applied onto an object, the object will accelerate at a constant rate.

s=d/t

Speed equation

Velocity Equation

- Don't need to memorize, just understand conceptually.

Acceleration equation

a = change in v / t

rise (delta y)

The vertical separation of any two points on a curve is the _______

Time Interval

difference between clock readings

clock reading

A measurement of time is a _______

run (delta x)

The horizontal separation of any two points on a curve is the _______

constant velocity

An object that has the same average velocity for all time intervals is moving at _______

slope

On a X vs. t graph, the velocity is represented by the_

Average Velocity

Dividing displacement by elapsed time

initial velocity

The velocity when the clock reading is zero is the _______

final velocity

The velocity after acceleration has occurred is the _______

acceleration due to gravity (g)

The constant acceleration that acts on falling bodies is _______

Instantaneous Velocity

How fast an object is moving and direction of motion at each instant in time

seconds (s)

The units of time

The units of speed

meters per second (m/s)

The units of acceleration

meters per second squared (m/s^2)

multiply by 3.6

To convert from m/s to km/h

divide by 3.6

To convert from km/h to m/s

speeding up

If the sign of the velocity and the acceleration is the same then the object is_______

slowing down

If the sign of the velocity and the acceleration is the opposite then the object is_______

g = 9.8 m/s^2

If the object is thrown downwards then_______

g = - 9.8 m/s^2

If the object is thrown upwards then_______

Meter (m)

SI unit Length

Kilogram (kg)

SI unit Mass

Newton (N)

SI unit Force

Second (s)

SI unit Time

Joule (J)

SI unit Work and Energy

Watt (W)

SI unit Power

Liter (L)

SI unit Volume

Nanometer (nm)

SI unit subatomic level Length 10^-9 m

giga (G)

Multiples Factor 10^9

mega (M)

Multiples Factor 10^6

kilo (K)

Multiples Factor 10^3

centi (c)

Multiples Factor 10^-2

milli (m)

Multiples Factor 10^-3

micro (m)

Multiples Factor 10^-6

nano (n)

Multiples Factor 10^-9

pico (p)

Multiples Factor 10^-12

v cos theta

Given Vector V find x component

v sin theta

Given Vector V find y component

Instantaneous acceleration

Average acceleration as change in time approaches 0

Average acceleration

a = ∆v/∆t

weight

A force that comes from gravity pulling down on any object with mass

mass

a body of coherent matter, usually of indefinite shape and often of considerable size

Newtons First Law

A body at rest or in constant motion will remain that way unless a force acts on it

Newtons Second Law

A law of motion that states that acceleration is equal to force divided by mass.

Newtons Third Law

A law of motion that states that for every action force here is a reaction force equal in strength and opposite in direction.

Translational Motion

Motion where there is no rotation

Rotational Motion

Forces applied to an object cause the object to rotate around a fixed point (fulcrum)

Torque

A "force" that causes rotation because it is exerted at a distance from the axis of rotation.

In uniform circular motion, what is the magnitude of the tangential force? and why?

Zero because there is no change in speed of the object because its constant.

The radial force because the tangential force is zero

What is the resultant force of an object moving in uniform circular motion?

Resultant Force

If two or more force vectors are added, then the result is a_______

What are the two kinds of friction?

Static friction (not moving) and Kinetic friction (moving)

static friction

A car drives with its tires rolling freely. Is the friction between the tires and the road kinetic or static?

Kinetic Friction

Friction between moving surfaces

How are the Kinetic friction and Static Friction equations different?

The kinetic friction equation has an equal sign the static friction equation has a less than or equal to sign meaning kinetic friction will have constant value for any given combination of coefficient of kinetic friction and normal force

Which will have a higher maximum value static friction or constant kinetic friction?

static friction it takes more force to move something than to get an object to slide and keep it sliding