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law of reflection
a scientific law stating that when light reflects off a surface, the angle of incidence always equals the angle of reflection; refers to the predictable behaviour of reflected light
if a surface is rough, the reflected light is sent out in a variety of directions
..., a mirror with a surface that curves inward
What concave mirrors do?
They can produce either a Virtual image ( upright and reversed) before the focal point , or a Real Image (inverted) after the focal point. Images produced a this mirror can also be enlarge or magnified.
..., a mirror with a surface that curves outward
Primary Colors of light
Red, green , and blue ( PL)
Secondary colors of light
yellow, magenta, and cryan (SL)
Primary colors of pigment
yellow, magneta and cryan (PP)
Secondary colors of pigment
Red, Green, and Blue (SP)
are chemicals that reflect certain colors and absorb others. The more pigments that get added together , the more absorption takes place and the color reflected becomes darker.
impossible to see through; preventing the passage of light
All light passes through; can see through clearly eg. glass
a type of material that scatters light as it passes through it
..., the point at which light rays parallel to the optical axis meet when reflected or refracted
Sign Conventions for Lenses
..., A flat mirror that produces an upright, virtual image the same size as the object
bends light to focus
..., a lens that is thicker in the middle than at the edges
..., a lens that is thinner in the middle than at the edges
ConVECTion is heat by particles
the ratio of the size of an image to the size of the object, the negative image distance divided by object distance
a lens that bends light waves inward or together, it is thicker in the middle
a lens that bends light waves outward or away, it is thinner in the middle
Focal Ray Convergent
ray that passes the focal point and is refracted parallel
Parallel Ray Convergent
ray that is incident along a path parallel to the axis and is refracted through the focal point
Chief Ray Convergent
ray that is incident through the center of the lens and is refracted undeviated
spherical mirror equation OR thin lens equation
inverse of the object distance plus the the inverse of the image distance is equal to the inverse of the focal length
Properties of Convex Lens
always a virtual image, di is negative
Image is real, inverted, and reduced
Concave Mirror with Object Distance greater than twice focal length
Image is real, inverted, magnified
Concave Mirror with Object Distance between twice focal length and focal length
Image is virtual, upright, magnified
Concave Mirror with Object Distance less than the focal length
Convex Mirror Image
Virtual, upright, reduced
if the light rays are close to the mirror, so are the reflected light rays
How is distance of reflected rays compared with the incoming light rays when striking a flat mirror?
virtual and upright with 1x magnification
What type of image is produced by a flat mirror?
A mirror whose rays will be reflected and converge to a focus
light spread out more
What happens to light as it moves farther away form a light source?
if parallel incident light rays reflect as parallel reflected waves, then reflection is
towards the normal
Light passing at an angle to the normal at low speed bends...
What is an example of refraction?
broken pencil in a glass of water
bending of light as it passes through two different media
When is light not refracted?
when it cannot pass through an object
either real or virtual
What type of image is produces from a converging lens?
Sin theta= n2/n1
What forms rainbows?
equal refraction of all wavelengths
What are paraxial rays?
thin lens equaiton
1/f = 1/do + 1/di
ni sine theta = nr sine theta
toward the normal
How are waves bent with a higher index of refraction?
light is energy and the phenomenon of color is a product of the interaction of energy and matter.
`, an image of an object formed by light rays that actually come together at a specific location
a reflected optical image; see "inverted image"
A device that produces a narrow beam of coherent light.
the waves are lined up so all crests and troughs occur at the same time.
light rays are reflected back into the material at the boundary when they hit the edge at a certain angle.
light beams are carried through thin glass fibers by internal reflection
flat shape, allows reflection directly back
...a curved piece of glass or other transparent material that refracts light.
objects that are near are clear. Corrective lens = concave lens
objects that are far are seen clear. Corrective lens = convex lens
..., a straight line extending from a point, used to show how light reflects
..., a copy of an object formed by reflected or refracted rays of light