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Force & Newton's Third Law

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branch of applied mathematics dealing with motion and the forces producing motion
Nicolas Copernicus
A physician from Poland (16th century) who proposed that the earth and all other planets move around the sun
Heliocentric Model
All planets move around the sun
Geocentric Model
The earth was the center of all motion
Galileo Galilei
A man from Italy who first proposed the law of inertia as well as making observations on the Moon, sun, Venus, and jupiter
Johannes Kepler
A german astronomer who created the three laws of planetary motion
Isaac Newton
A man from England who realized that the planets move around the Sun because of inertia as well as developing the laws of motion and gravity
Henry Cavendish
A British physicist and chemist whose most famous experiment used a torsion bar to determine the value of the universal gravitation constant to determine the weight of the earth
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
A French scientist who made contributions in the fields of friction, electricity, and magnetism
Michael Faraday
A British scientist who developed the concept of the "field" to explain how magnets attract
James Clerk Maxwell
A British scientist who described the relationship between the electric field and the magnetic field
(interactions between two objects)
A collection of components organized to accomplish a specific function or set of functions.
The source of the force
Contact force
A force that "touches" or comes in contact with the system
Field Force
A force exerted on an object without touching it
Gravitational Field Strength
gravitational force per unit mass experienced by a mass placed at that point
9.8 N/kg
The gravitational field strength on earth
Elecetric field strength
The quantitative measure of the strength of the electric force per unit of charge at a particular location away from the charged object
Magnetic Field strength
The quantitative measure of the strength of the magnetic field surround a magnetic material or moving electrons
a body of coherent matter, usually of indefinite shape and often of considerable size
_______ is the property of an object that leads it to resist any change in motion
Center of gravity
the point at which the force of gravity can be considered to act for purposes of describing the straight-line motion of the object
Electric Charge
a property that leads to electromagnetic interations between the particles that make up matter.
One coulomb's charge
The elementary charge
(physics) the force of attraction between all masses in the universe
a contact force; type of force between two touching surfaces
static friction
A car drives with its tires rolling freely. Is the friction between the tires and the road kinetic or static?
An object is moving if its position relative to a fixed point is changing.
A force that comes from gravity pulling down on any object with mass
normal force
a perpendicular contact force exerted by a surface on another object is a(n) _______.
a force exerted by any segment of a rope or string on an adjoining segment is _______.
Air resistance (drag)
The contact force that acts on an object passing through a fluid because of its interaction with the atoms or molecules of the fluid with the surface of the object
The upward force due to the difference in flow of air above or below the wings
Force applied to the air craft by the pulling or pushing force of the engines
force created due to air resistance
Centripetal Force
A force directed towards the center of a circle that causes an object to follow a circular path
centrifugal force
a fictitious force that tends to throw an object off when the object is rotating in a non-inertial frame of reference
external world
everything surrounding a system that exerts forces on it is the _______.
net force
Acceleration depends on the
balanced force
Equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions
A mutual action between objects where each object exerts an equal and opposite force on the other
Newton's Third Law
All forces come in pairs. The two forces in a pair act on different objects and are equal in strength and opposite in direction.
action and reaction forces
are equal, in opposite directions, and happen at the same time
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is directly proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distances between their centers
Coulomb's Law
F = kQq/r^(2)
Kepler's Laws
One: The paths of the planets are ellipses with the Sun at one of the foci of the ellipse. Two: An imaginary line from the Sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in e…
The universal gravitational constant
Fv= mg
gravitation force or weight
graviational field strength
g= G m(planet)/ radius2
E= F/q
Electric field strenght
Electric force
Fe= qE
electric constant