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Common Factors Model

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one based in medicine
There are two strands in the history of psychotherapy
Common factors argues psychotherapy based in healing practices is more accurate
improvement in therapy can be attributed to the relationship and degree to which the client and the therapist are engaged in the process
history of therapy based on medical model
idea that through science we can come up with specific explanations for particular problems and target with particular interventions
EST movement and medical model
focus on specificity->specific treatment for specific problem
History of common factors model
many decades CPs emphasized humanistic interaction
What about evidence in support of specific treatments?
analyses suggest that when confounding variables are controlled for, all treatments are equally effective
What are the common factors that are therapeutic?
-nature in which client and therapist engage and interact, and context in which this occurs
clients and therapy
often ignored when focus is on model and techniques
people often use strategies from therapy on their own
Evidience of clients as source of change: self-generated change and spontaneous recovery
Evidience of clients as source of change: placebo effects
treatment control conditions show strong effects over no treatment control groups
Evidience of clients as source of change: corrective effects of self expression or disclosure
expressive writing or speaking freely into tape recorder shows positive affects. this suggests people have capacity to change and heal themselves, therapy may help them utilize this
Client engagement in therapy: client perception of psychotherapy
perception of therapy tends to be a better outcome than therapist perception
client agency, activity, reflexivity, and creativity
clients continuously evaluating what is happing and gathering whats Useful and not Useful
early change
often clients respond to treatment within the first few sessions (clients arent dependent variable on which independent variable of therapy operates)
importance of the therapist
focus is on how the therapist engages and interacts with their patients
therapists duties: alliance
quality and strength of relationship
therapists duties: goal consensus and collaboration
-strive to create sense of collaboration, empahsize "we and us"
therapists duties: gathering feedback on the relationship
therapist should solicit patients experiences in the relationship and strive to improve it
being confrontational
therapist behaviors that impede treatment progress
the context of therapy
context in which therapist and client engage is important
The context of the treatment is such that there must be..
clear rationale for treatment that makes sense to patient and therapist
A personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized
Big 5 trait characterized by trustworthiness, altruism, trust, compliance, modesty, and tender-mindedness.
A personality dimension describing people with high levels of anxiety, hostility, depression, and self-consciousness.
openness to experience
A personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imagination, sensitivity, and curiosity.
A personality descriptor indicating the "outgoing" nature of some individuals