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Level 125

Thirteen Colonies & the British Empire III

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Tariffs and Excise Taxes
Taxes on imports or exports; the rates of these set by Congress were lower than Hamilton had wanted
Whiskey Rebellion 1794
farmers in Pennsylvania refused to pay excise tax, they attacked revenue collectors, Washington mobilized 15000 militiamen and placed them under Hamilton, show of force, Americans applauded use of force, westerners resented this action, Jefferson was chief critic
Washington's Farewell Address
warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, against US "permanent alliances", not to form political parties, to avoid sectionalism, two term precedent was set
XYZ Affair
Adams sent US delegation to Paris to negotiate, three French ministers requested bribes to enter into negotiations, American delegates refused, "millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute", led to war calls, Adams resisted
Alien and Sedition Acts
authorized the president to deport any aliens considered dangerous and to detain any enemy aliens in a time of war and made it illegal for newspaper editors to criticize either the president or Congress and imposed heavy penalties
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
states had entered into a "compact" in forming the national government, and therefore if any act of the federal government broke the compact, a state could nullify the federal law
Checks and Balances
Not wanting any ONE branch to get too powerful, the Founding Fathers gave each branch certain ways to limit the power of the other two.
Bill of Rights
Recognized by William and Mary which limited the powers of the monarchy, prohibited Catholics from occupying he throne and guaranteed the role of Parliament in government
Supreme Court
This highest court that was empowered to rule on the constitutionality of decisions made by state courts
Samuel Adams
From Massachusetts, he was one of the leaders of the radical faction and was even more radical than his cousin
Paul Revere
The more renowned of the colonial riders who warned of the British march to Concord
The colonial militia of Lexington, which assembled on the village green to face the British after being warned. They also attacked British soldiers by the hundreds and fired at them from behind stone walls
Lexington and concord
The first skirmishes in two cities in which the first shot of the American Revolution was made; "the shot heard around the world"
Second Continental Congress
Congress that met in Philadelphia in May 1775, which was divided between one group of delegates, mainly from New England, who thought the colonies should declare their independence, and another group, mainly from the mi…
Olive Branch Petition
Petition sent in July 1775 to King George III, in which the colonies pledged their loyalty and asked the king to intercede with Parliament to secure peace and the protection of colonial rights
Thomas Paine's Common Sense
Paine's essay in which he argued in clear and forceful language for the colonies becoming independent states and breaking all political ties with the British monarchy. Paine argued that it was contrary to common s…
Declaration of Independence
This document stated that power came from the people (popular sovereignty) and listed the grievances (what we were mad about) and said that the United States was free from Great Britain
The estimated 40% of the American population who joined actively in the struggle against Britain, in the Revolutionary War. The largest numbers were from the New England states and Virginia. Most of the soldiers …
Also known as Tories, these colonists maintained their allegiance to the king. Almost 60,000 fought and died next to British soldiers, supplied them with arms and food, and joined in raiding parties that pillaged Pat…
Valley Forge
After the loss of Philadelphia, Washington's demoralized troops suffered through the severe winter of 1777-1778 here in Philadelphia
Battle of Saratoga
The turning point of the Revolution because of its significant diplomatic outcome. The American generals Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold forced the British army to surrunder in upstate New York in October 1777
Battle of Yorktown
1781, the last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Strongly supported by French naval and military forces, Washington's army forced the surrender of a large British army commanded by General Charles Cornwallis
Treaty of Paris
Treaty signed in 1783, which provided for the following: (1) Britain would recognize the existence of the United States as an independent nation. (2) The Mississippi River would be the western boundary of that nat…
Articles of Confederation
This document was the first form of government for the United States. It set up a confederation and the federal government had very little power. All the power was in the hands of the states.
unicameral legislature
One-house legislature that was established by the Articles of Confederation, in which each state was given one vote, with at least 9 votes out of 13 required to pass important laws
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Ordinance that was passed by Congress and set the rules of creating new states. This was for the large territory lying between the Great Lakes and the Ohio River. It granted limited self-government to…
Shays' Rebellion
Uprising led by Captain Daniel Shays, a Massachusetts farmer and Revolutionary War veteran, who led other farmers against high state taxes, imprisonment for debt, and lack of paper money. The rebel farmers stopped the collec…
Abigail Adams
John Adam's wife, whose pleas remained unanswered regarding the second-class status of women; "I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors"
Albany Plan of Union
1754 Congress for seven colonies, plan developed by Benjamin Franklin provided an intercolonial government and a system for recruiting troops and collecting taxes, common defense, never took effect, set precedent soon
Sugar Act of 1764
Revenue Act placed duties on foreign sugar and certain luxuries, chief purpose was to raise revenues, companion law provided for stricter enforcement of Navigation Laws
Quartering Act of 1765
act required colonists to provide food and living quarters for British soldiers stationed in the colonies
Stamp Act of 1765
passed by George Grenville, required revenue stamps be placed on most printed paper in the colonists, all legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, advertisements, first direct tax collected from those who used the goods, previously had been paid by merchants
Townshend Acts
1767 Parliament enacted new duties to be collected on colonial imports of tea, glass, and paper, required revenues raised be used to pay crown officials in the colonies, made them independent of colonial assemblies, prov…
Boston Massacre
people of Boston resented British troops, March 1770 a crowd harassed the guards of customs house, five people murdered, defended by John Adams and acquitted, Samuel Adams condemned it as a "massacre"
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
a secret society organized for the purpose of intimidating tax agents
Committees of Correspondence
principal device for spreading idea that British officials were conspiring against colonial liberties, organizations would regularly exchange letters about suspicious or potentially threatening British activities
Boston Tea Party
Americans refused to buy cheaper tea because doing so would recognize Parliament's right to tax colonies, tea on ship had no buyers, Sons of Liberty boarded the ship, dumped 342 chests of tea into…
Tea Act of 1773
hoping to help the British East India Company made the price of the company's tea, cheaper than that of smuggled Dutch tea
Coercive Acts of 1774
passed in response to the Boston Tea Party, four of them, "Intolerable Acts"
The Enlightenment
educated Americans were attracted to this European movement in literature and philosophy, believed the "darkness" of past ages could be corrected by the use of human reasoning
the belief that God had established natural laws in creating the universe, but the role of divine intervention in human affairs was minimal, believed in rationalism and trusted human reason to solve many problem…
French and Indian war
War in North America between French and British. (aided by N.A.) British conquered.
A legislature consisting of the house of lords and the houese of commons, half were elected while half were appointed
King George 111
Ruler of Great Britain from 1760-1820
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Colony formed for religious regions in Massachusetts under the leadership of John winthrop
The Mayflower Compact
Document created by pilgrims which established a rudimentary government based on self-rule
Italian explorer who attempted to find a passage to asia for spain; his voyages brought about the first permanent interaction between Europeans and Native americans
Isabelle and Ferdinand
King and queen who united spain as a single catholic kingdom, allowing the nation to focus on overseas colonialism and conquest
Native american group living in what is now the southwest, who lived in multlistoried dwellings and developed complex irrigation systems
Native American group living in what is now the american northeast , which joined its tribes togther in a political confederation in opposition to Europeans and other N.A groups
Pueblo Revolt
N.A revolt against spanish colonists caused by forced work and religious conversion; the revolution forced the Spanish to leave mexico for over a decade
Seminomadic Native american group which followed buffalo herds on the great plains
Small colony formed in massachusetts by the pilgrims in 1620
The house of Burgesses
The first representative assembly in america, formed in 1619 in Virginia
The encomienda system
was when the king would give segments of land (including N.A living there) to individual Spainards
Phillis Wheatly
African American poet who overcame slavery to become the first african american poet to be published in the colonies
Cotton Mather
Prominent Puritan preacher whose popular pamphlets on the threat of the devil helped cause the salem witch trials
Subsistence Farming
Small-scale farming which focuses on growing only enough food to provide for the family; this type of farming was practiced in New England
George Whitfeild
The most popular preacher of The Great Awakening, he gave rousing sermons to large, emotional crowds, warning the hellish torments which awaited those who did not profess their belief in Jesus Christ
The name for the concept under which each colony elected their own representative assembly though only white, male property owners could vote
Religious Toleration
The name for the concept allowing the practice of different religions ; massachusetts as the least accepting and excluded catholics and non-christians
John Peter Zenger
was a writer, publisher and editor who wrote about the colonial government and was seen to be criticizing it, so he was filed for being libel; but the case was soon repealed because it…
The Great Awakening
Was a religious revival that focused on the ideas of an almighty God, condemnation of Hell, and also the fact that you could study the bible in your own home without a minister. Le…