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Chinese Revolution

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Macartney Mission
Lord Macartney (Britain; sent by King George III, with 600 gifts) goes to Qinglong Emperor to convince the emperor to: 1. Open north ports to British 2. Let British ships be repaired on Chinese l…
Qing dynasty
Government of China. Overthrown in 1912.
Opium Wars
First One 1840-1842: Lin-Tse-hsu (Chinese) try to stop the British from selling bengal opium in China -> British Win (More ports open; Treat of Nanjing)
Taiping Rebellion
A massive rebellion by believers in the religious teachings of Hong Xuiguan, begun in 1851 and not suppressed until 1864. Hong converts groups to create "heavenly peace" and gets economic and real estate control, w…
The legal principle that exempts individuals from local law, applicable in China because of the agreements reached after China's loss in the Opium war.
Sino-Japanese War
Japan won and gained Taiwan from China and was able to make Korea a protectorate.
Hundred Days of Reform
1898 and failed terribly
Tzu Hsi (a.k.a. Cixi)
Empress of the Qing dynasty. Supported the Boxers. Hated foreigners.
Boxer Rebellion
Chinese revolutionaries revolt to overthrow and remove western influence from China; which took place the end of the Qing dynasty between 1899 and 1901
Sun Yat-sen
Leader/founder of Nationalist Party/Guomindang
After collapse of Qing Dynasty. Warlord took over and grabbed certain parts of China to rule.
May Fourth Movement
Students against foreign domination and warlord gov't in Beijing.
Nationalist Party
Sun Yat-sen'd Three Principles of the People
a political philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation. The three principles are often translated into and summarized as nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people.
Jiang Jieshi
Leader of the Nationalist Party after Sun Yat-sen
The New Culture Movement
A movement that was established to eliminate the confucian beliefs and promote the western beliefs and culture.
Mao Zedong
a Chinese Communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed as Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949
The Mukden incident
Chinese nationalism --> Japan worried. 1931 Japan makes an excuse for their aggression: they secretly blew up their own railroad tracks near Shenyang (Mukden). Then, they sent reinforcements saying it was for "self-defense."
The New Machuria. A Japanese independent state. Had a strong self-sufficient economy.
The Long March
Nationalists try to get Communists out of China. So they attack. Communists flee 6,000 miles. Only 10% survive. Mao then rebuilds in a new base gaining local peasant support through land reforms.
Unemployment goes back up when Roosevelt cuts PWA and WPA and slows gout spending
Great Leap Forward
Large collectivized farms, created by Mao
Cult of personality
Only occurs in the dictatorial government, when the dictator uses propaganda to make him look like he's "super human". E.G: Hitler, Stalin
Cultural Revolution
Red Guards
Radical students and young people. All for the new Cultural Revolution.
Lin Biao
1969 Defense Minister. Mao chose him to be his heir but then began to not like him. Then Lin tried to kill Mao and then Lin died in a plane crash (much speculation).
The Gang of Four
Was the name given to a political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials. They came to important during the Cultural Revolution (1966-76) and were subsequently charged with a series of treasonous crimes. Scapegoats for Mao's wrongdoings.
The Four Modernizations
Strengthen the fields of agriculture, industry, national defense, science and technology in China.
Tiananmen Square
Protests in 1989