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Level 145

Crimean War

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Religious Dispute + Territory and Control
What were the 2 main causes of the Crimean War
Why did the purchase of commission system come under attack?
There was a failure to equip the army properly during the 54-55 winter
Civilian and Military mismanagement
What did the McNeill-Tulloch report expose?
List the 5 Cardwell Army Reforms
1. Abolishment of purchase of Commission
What did William Howard Russell's reports show?
Sympathy towards the soldiers and the horrors of war + he criticized the army
The Times
a failing newspaper for the upper classes, it was bought and reformed by Northcliffe, it was one of the most respectable newspapers and Northcliffe made it popular again
Give 2 reasons why Russell's reports were unreliable.
1. Part of a campaign to undermine and attack Raglan
What did Roger Fenton's photos depict?
The life of ordinary soldiers and the unpretentious side of them
What limitations did Roger Fenton have?
He was ordered not to take disturbing photos and his images were staged
Why was this battle named 'The Thin Red Line'
Russell depicted the soldiers as a 'thin red streak'
Lord Raglan, Lord Cardigan, Lord Lucan
Name the 3 commanders of the British Army in the Crimea
What vital mistake did Lord Lucan make during the charge of the Light Brigade?
He sent the Light Brigade down a valley where they were surrounded by Russian Forces
113 killed, 134 wounded out of 661
How many men were killed and wounded in the Charge of the Light Brigade?
Raglan issued the order to Lucan
Who issued the order to who during the Charge of the Light Brigade?
Scutari, just near Constantinople in Turkey
Where were the major British Hospitals based?
Cholera, Typhoid, Typhus, Dysentery
Name 4 diseases that were very common in the hospitals in Scutari.
Why was Florence Nightingale such a success?
She collected lots of information and bought her own supplies to improve the hospital, she decreased mortality rates, and she helped open a training school for nurses in 1860
What was Mary Seacole's book called and when was it published?
The wonderful adventures of Mrs Seacole in many lands, published in 1857
Why did Seacole travel to the Crimea independently?
She was rejected by the British Officials due to her skin colour
What type of housing did the soldiers stay in?
Why did many of the supplies not reach the British?
Due to the Great Storm which sunk the 'Resolute' and the 'Prince' which was carrying a lot of their supplies
Overlapping structures in the British Army
What was problems with supply partly down to?
A - 1 side
How long should section A and B questions approximately be?
Introduction, similarities, differences, conclusion
State the 4 main sections of a section A question
Did Robespierre believe in the general will as the source of all law like Roussaeu?
battle of Balaclava
Which battle did the charge of the Light Brigade occur and when did it happen?
Lord Raglan-Commander-in-chief of the British army
Who were the main people involved in the charge of the Light Brigade and what were their roles?
Lord Raglan Gave hurried reports to Captain Nolan to give to Lord Lucan
What were the main events leading up to the Charge of the Light Brigade
What three main things happened as a result of the charge ?
-Of the 661 cavalry, 113 were killed, 134 were wounded and 45 were taken prisoner
When was the Crimean War?
When was the battle of Balaclava
the Thin Red line
What were the two key events that occurred in Balaclava
-The Great Storm 1854
What were the two natural events damaging British Supplies during the war and when did they occur?
What was new about the Crimean War in terms of reporting?
It was the First War where newspapers deployed reporters in the War-zone
-William Russell, a reporter for The Times
Who were the two key people in getting information back to Britain about the war, and what did they do?
Sympathy for the situation of ordinary soldiers
What were the views of William Russell's reports?
Why should William Russell's reports not be fully trusted?
part of a deliberate campaign to Attack Lord Raglan
The impact of the press 1654-55
the times accused the army leadership of Nepotism and incompetence
military camps
What did Roger Fenton photograph in the Crimea?
What were the limitations of Roger Fenton's photography?
-Wasn't allowed to take photos of dead bodies
What was the overall impact of reporters?
-They engaged the British Public to a new level, making the public concerned about soldier welfare
How is the Crimean war remembered by the British?
It has been remembered as heroic soldiers being badly lead by blundering aristocratic officers.
Scutari, Turkey
Where were the major British hospitals based during the Crimean War?
Inadequate Medical supplies
What were the medical conditions like in the hospitals?
Collected info to analyse mortality rates
What did Florence Nightingale do to improve the hospitals in Scutari?
How was Florence Nightingale seen in the public eye?
-Became an iconic image for ideal Victorian Christian womanhood in Britain e.g. 'Lady with the Lamp'
her poor treatment of nurses
What two thing has Florence Nightingale been criticised about?
to inspect and Improve the conditions of hospitals
What was the aim of the Sanitary Commission in Scutari?
problems with ventilation
What problems did the Sanitary Commission highlight?
What changes did the Sanitary Commission implement?
Restructured the hospitals in Scutari and Balaclava
-Decreased it from 52% to 5.2%
What did these restructures of the hospitals do to the mortality rate?
What did Mary Seacole do in the Crimea
She set up the British Hotel in Balaclava to supply provisions to soldiers on the front lines.
What were the problems with supplies in the army?
Lacked basic Medical supplies as well as more advanced Things
Shortage of wagons to transport supplies
What were the problems with transportation in the army?
Lack of co-ordination
What were the problems with organisation in the army?
What were the problems with leadership in the army?
-Officers obtained their rank through purchase of commission, as oppose to actual skill
Initially perceived as a hero
Reputation of Lord Cardigan after the Crimean War
received the most blame for the charge
Reputation of Lord Lucan after the Crimean War
Reputation of Lord Raglan after the Crimean War
-Held responsible for many of the problems of leadership and organisation during the Crimea.;
established nursing as a respectable profession for Women
What was the impact of the Crimean War on nursing?
-The Cardwell Army Reforms 1870-71
What was the name of the army reforms put in place after the war? And what did they do?
What were the limitations of Cardwell's reforms?
Entrenched interests in the army resisted the reforms
What did the civil service reform do?
made It so people were appointed on merit.
Why was the Crimean War so important
turning point in 1 9th century Europe
Ottoman Empire,
Russian/Bulgarian troops fought who
Balkan people
Russians where seen as defenders of the
Balkan people are
either Christian Orthodox(Serbs, Greeks, Roumanians, Bulgarians), or the Slavs(Serbs, Bulgarians , Slovenes, Croats)
Sick Man of Europe
Ottoman Empire was known as the
Which famous poem was created about Crimean War
Charge of the Light Brigade by Lord Alfred Tennyson at the Battle of Balaclava
Florence Nightingale
Credited with having established nursing as an honored profession during the Crimean War in the 1850s
Treaty of Paris
Treaty signed in 1783, which provided for the following: (1) Britain would recognize the existence of the United States as an independent nation. (2) The Mississippi River would be the western boundary of that nat…