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Frenchman who sailed down Mississippi River in 1673 with Jacques Marquette but did not find a Northwest Passage
A large farm or plantation.
Robert De Lasalle
Sailed down the Mississippi River to the Gulf and claimed all the land touched by the river and its tributaries for France.
Franciscan priest who established missions in New Spain (California).
N.A revolt against spanish colonists caused by forced work and religious conversion; the revolution forced the Spanish to leave mexico for over a decade
Florida is the oldest permanent European settlement in America.
El Camino Real
Spanish for "the royal road," a route that linked Spain's colonies from Mexico City to Santa Fe.
Native American group living in what is now the american northeast , which joined its tribes togther in a political confederation in opposition to Europeans and other N.A groups
Unanimously chosen to be the leader of the Continental Army
deafeated @ Fort Duquesne 1755 brought cannons through the woods, killed by Indians
Ohio River Valley
Had very fertile land and thick forests. Both France and Britain claimed land in this valley
Pedro Menendez de Aviles
Spanish explorer; founded city of St. Augustine in Florida; drove out French settlers
Battle of Quebec
battle that led to the British victory in the French and Indian War
Treaty of Paris 1763
Britain gains all of Canada, all French territory East of the Mississippi and Fl. from Spain, Spain gets all French territory West of the Mississippi.
a Spanish fort established in order to protect their missions
places where the French and Native Americans met to trade goods.
a stream or river that flows into a larger river.
King Phillip's War
a war in the 1670's between Native Americans and English settlers living in New England.
the rugged stretch of land near the Appalachian Mountains.
French & Indian War
war fought by the British against the French and their Native American allies in North America.
Native American rebellion led by the Ottawa leader Pontiac in 1763.
Proclamation of 1763
The purpose of the proclamation was to organize Great Britain's new North American empire and to stabilize relations with Native North Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier.
to find new lands to build trading posts.
Why did the French want to explore the Mississippi?
by exploring the Mississippi
What is one way the French tried to find the Northwest Passage?
its location near the mouth of a river
What contributed to the success of New Orleans as a trading center?
Native Americans resisted English settlement
What happened when English settlers moved west?
to force the English out of New England
What was Metacom's goal in waging war against settlers?
French and British fight over the Ohio River Valley
Describe the beginning of the French and Indian War.
From the Native Americans
How did French settlers learn about the Mississippi River?
French missionary that explored the Mississippi River with Louis Jolliet and drew maps of it
_______ claimed one of the largest and most successful slave markets.
Spanish built these in order to spread their religion.
King Philip; chief of the Wampanoags
Who fought in the French and Indian War?
The British, the French and their Indian allies
The Seven Years War
The French and Indian War was the 4th part of which European war?
Canada, the Ohio River Valley
The French and British fought over which territories?
King George II
Who was King of England during the French and Indian War?
How did the conflict begin between the French and the British?
The conflict began over control of beaver pelts and the fur trade
What role did Fort Duquesne play as a cause of the war?
...threatened the safety of the colonies and was a barrier to further British westward movement
What was George Washington's role in the French and Indian War?
... was commander of the Virginia colonial forces. He surrendered to the French at Fort Necessity.
What is the Albany Plan of Union?
A plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin to achieve greater colonial unity. It was rejected by the colonies (only 7 showed for the meeting), but it was the first attempt at colonial cooperation.
(1708-1778), Prime Minister of Great Britain 1766-1768; often known as _______ the Elder
England, France, and Spain
All of the countries involved either gained or lost territory as a result of the war.
This country gained all of the territory between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean as well as Canada from the French and Spanish.
epicenter of the enlightenment
European empire that colonized most of Latin America
Who were the Acadians?
...this group was forced out of Canada by the British after the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Not wanted in the Thirteen Colonies, they eventually settled in the colony of Louisiana.
Give two effects the war had on England.
increased the size of the empire and increased the country's debt
Give two effects the war had on the Thirteen Colonies
united the colonies against and common enemy and created bitter feelings against England
What role did Pontiac's rebellion have on the Thirteen colonies and England?
England was forced to pass the Proclamation of 1763 to ban settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. The colonists became angry with the law and settled in the Ohio River Valley anyway.
Explain the Proclamation of 1763.
This law was passed to stop the violence between the Native Americans and the colonists. It banned settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Colonists ignored the law and moved west anyway.
How did the American colonists react to the Proclamation of 1763?
What years did the French and Indian War take place?
Quebec and Montreal are located along which river?
Atlantic Ocean and the Mississippi River
The British colonies are sandwiched between the _______ Ocean and the _______ River?
101. John Peter Zenger trial
Zenger published articles critical of British governor William Cosby. He was taken to trial, but found not guilty. The trial set a precedent for freedom of the press in the colonies.
102. Glorious Revolution, 1688
King James II's policies, such as converting to catholicism, conducting a series of repressive trials known as the "Bloody Assizes," and maintianing a standing army, so outraged the people of England that Parliament asked…
103. John Locke (1632-1704), his theories
Locke was an English political philosopher whose ideas inspired the American revolution. He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property, and that governments exist to protect those rights…
104. A democratic society or not?
The Founding Fathers were not sure that democracy was the right form of government for America. They feared anarchy and the rise of factions whose policies would not represent the true will of the peo…
105. Land claims and squabbles in North America
The British controlled the colonies on the east coast, and the French held the land around the Mississippi and west of it. Both the British and the French laid claim to Canada and the Ohio Valley region.
106. Differences between French and British colonization
The British settled mainly along the coast, where they started farms, towns, and governments. As a general rule, whole families emigrated. The British colonies had little interaction with the local Indians (aside from occasional fighti…
107. Queen Anne's War, 1702-1713
The second of the four wars known generally as the French and Indian Wars, it arose out of issues left unresolved by King Williams' War (1689-1697) and was part of a larger European conflict k…
108. Peace of Utrecht, 1713
Ended Queen Anne's War. Undermined France's power in North America by giving Britain the Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia.
109. War of Jenkin's Ear (1739-1743)
Land squabble between Britain and Spain over Georgia and trading rights. Battles took place in the Caribbean and on the Florida/Georgia border. The name comes from a British captain named Jenkin, whose ear was cut off by the Spanish.
110. King George's War (1744-1748)
Land squabble between France and Britain. France tried to retake Nova Scotia (which it had lost to Britain in Queen Anne's War). The war ended with a treaty restoring the status quo, so that Britain kept Nova Scotia).
111. French and Indian War (1756-1763)
Part of the Seven Years' War in Europe. Britain and France fought for control of the Ohio Valley and Canada. The Algonquins, who feared British expansion into the Ohio Valley, allied with the French.…
112. Francis Parkman (1823-1893)
An historian who wrote about the struggle between France and Britain for North America.
113. Albany Plan of Union, Benjamin Franklin
During the French and Indian War, Franklin wrote this proposal for a unified colonial government, which would operate under the authority of the British government.
114. General Braddock
British commander in the French and Indian War. He was killed and his army defeated in a battle at the intersection of the Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers, known as the Battle of Fallen Timb…
115. William Pitt (1708-1778)
British secretary of state during the French and Indian War. He brought the British/colonial army under tight British control and started drafting colonists, which led to riots.
116. Fort Pitt, Fort Duquesne
Fort Duquesne became one of the principal French outposts in the northern Ohio Valley, and, in 1754 the French troops in Fort Dusquesne destroyed nearby British Fort Necessity, after Washington and the colonial army surrend…
117. Wolfe, Montcalm, Quebec
1759 - British general James Wolfe led an attack on Quebec. The French, under Marquis de Montcalm, fought off the initial attack, but the British recovered and took Quebec in a surprise night attack in September, 1759.
118. Treaty of Paris, 1763
Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. Fr…
119. Pontiac's Rebellion
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the a…
120. Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
121. Writs of Assistance
Search warrants issued by the British government. They allowed officials to search houses and ships for smuggled goods, and to enlist colonials to help them search. The writs could be used anywhere, anytime, as o…
122. James Otis
A colonial lawyer who defended (usually for free) colonial merchants who were accused of smuggling. Argued against the writs of assistance and the Stamp Act.
123. Paxton Boys
A mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen led by the Paxtons who massacred a group of non-hostile Indians.
124. Navigation Acts
A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation …
125. Grenville's Program
As Prime Minister, he passed the Sugar Act in 1764 and the Stamp Act in 1765 to help finance the cost of maintaining a standing force of British troops in the colonies. He believe…
126. Sugar Act, 1764
Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sugar and molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as …
127. Molasses Act, 1733
British legislation which had taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of mola…
128. Currency Act, 1764
British legislation which banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused by Virginia's decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
129. Vice-admiralty courts
In these courts, British judges tried colonials in trials with no juries.
A movement under which the colonies agreed to stop importing goods from Britain in order to protest the Stamp Act.
131. Virtual, actual representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. Actual representation mean that a representative is elected by his constituents. The colo…
132. Stamp Act
March 22, 1765 - British legislation passed as part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue measures which required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, ha…
133. Virginia Resolves
May 30, 1765 - Patrick Henry's speech which condemned the British government for its taxes and other policies. He proposed 7 "resolves" to show Virginia's resisitence to the British policies, 5 of which were ado…
134. Stamp Act Congress, 1765
27 delegates from 9 colonies met from October 7-24, 1765, and drew up a list of declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies.
135. Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to dec…
136. Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After…
137. Internal taxes
Taxes which arose out of activities that occurred "internally" within the colonies. The Stamp Act was considered an internal tax, because it taxed the colonists on legal transactions they undertook locally. Many colonists and Englis…
138. External taxes
Taxes arose out of activities that originated outside of the colonies, such as cusotms duties. The Sugar Act was considered an external tax, because it only operated on goods imported into the colonies from overs…
139. Declatory Act, 1766
Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures.
140. Quartering Act
March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
141. Townshend Acts, reaction
Another series of revenue measures, passed by Townshend as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1767, they taxed quasi-luxury items imported into the colonies, including paper, lead, tea, and paint. The colonial reaction was outrage…
142. John Dickinson
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies tow…
143. Massachusetts Circular Letter
A letter written in Boston and circulated through the colonies in February, 1768, which urged the colonies not to import goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Boston, New York, and Philadelphia agreed to non-importation…
144. Sam Adams (1722-1803)
A Massachusetts politician who was a radical fighter for colonial independence. Helped organize the Sons of Liberty and the Non-Importation Commission, which protested the Townshend Acts, and is believed to have lead the Boston…
145. The Association
A military organization formed by Benjamin Franklin which formed fighting units in Pennsylvania and erected two batteries on the Delaware River.
146. Repeal of the Townshend Acts, except tax on tea
1770 - Prime Minister Lord North repealed the Townshend Acts, except for the tax on tea.
147. Boston Massacre, 1770
The colonials hated the British soldiers in the colonies because the worked for very low wages and took jobs away from colonists. On March 4, 1770, a group of colonials started throwing rocks and snowb…
148. Crispus Attucks (1723-1770)
He was one of the colonials involved in the Boston Massacre, and when the shooting started, he was the first to die. He became a martyr.
149. John Adams
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Se…
150. Carolina Regulators
Western frontiersmen who in 1768 rebelled in protest against the high taxes imposed by the Eastern colonial government of North Carolina, and whose organization was crushed by military force by Governor Tryon in 1771…
Joseph de Jumonville
The Half King killed him, but George Washington was held responsible.
A British Major General, he was killed at the Battle of Monongahela.
grandson of Louis XIV and king of France from 1715 to 1774 who led France into the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War (1710-1774)
He captured Fort William Henry and promised the British safe passage out of the area. His Indian allies dislike the arrangement and killed, robbed, and captured many of the British.
Treaty of Easton
This treaty with the Six Nations gave Britain control of the Forks of the Ohio.
Lack of supplies
Why does Montcalm fail to pursue the British after a major victory?
She gave birth while a captive of the Indians.
Running the gauntlet
Captives of the Indians were subjected to varying degrees of this.
A brutal, though spiritual, practice for some Indians.
The French lost the war because of their poor...
A British general, he sought alliances with the Ohio Indians.
The Treaty of _______ ended the war.
Whose death started the French and Indian War? (role, not name)
Seven Years' War
(1756-1763 CE) Known also as the French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant forc…
The Half King
The Indian leader who was involved in starting the French and Indian War.
Both the French and the English wanted to control trade near what is today...
What was the dominant Indian nation in the northeast?
Forks of the Ohio
What waterway was at stake in the negotiations between the Virginians and the Indians?
Washington feared retaliation, so he made his men fortify their position. Attacked by the French and the Indians
He was long seen as important for controlling the Ohio Country, both for settlement and for trade. Englishman William Trent had established a highly successful trading post at the forks as early as the 17…
He captured Quebec.
The British won the Siege of Quebec through this...
Plains of Abraham
The site of the battle that decided the fate of Quebec.
What happened to both commanders at the end of the Siege of Quebec?
The British general that forced Montreal to surrender without a fight.
By siding with the British they helped cause the French defeat.
Virginia House of Burgesses
George Washington was elected to this near the end of the war.
To have a straw figure of a person burned is called being burned in...
The line that divided Indian lands from settler lands after the war was called the...
He met with Washington before and after the War. He tried but failed to protect Indian lands after the War.
George Washington's home is known as...
Second Continental Congress
Congress that met in Philadelphia in May 1775, which was divided between one group of delegates, mainly from New England, who thought the colonies should declare their independence, and another group, mainly from the mi…