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Civil War & Reconstruction

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Fugitive Slave Act
Escaped slaves must be returned to masters (part of Compromise of 1850)
Popular Sovereignty
Let the people decide on whether slavery should be allowed in territories through voting.
Dred Scott
He was a slave who was taken to free territory. Scott sued for his freedom and the Supreme Court declared that slaves are property, not people.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Popular book by Harriet Beecher Stowe focusing on the negatives of slavery.
South Carolina
First state to leave the Union in 1860.
They believed that since the states voluntarily joined the Union, they can also choose to leave.
Jefferson Davis
Confederate President
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
War of Attrition
A war where both sides are roughly equally matched so victory comes only with wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses
Chief export of the South
Gettysburg Address
Lincoln's speech to honor fallen soldiers
Emancipation Proclamation
Went into effect on 1/1/1863; ends slavery in rebelling states/areas of the Confederacy and turns the way into a war against slavery.
Total war
All the resources of the nation being put forth towards the war effort.
13th Amendment
Outlaws Slavery (1865)
Ft. Sumter
April 12th, 1861- Firing on this property initiated the Civil War
Bull Run
July 21st, 1861- First battle of the war- spectators expected a Union route and quick war- this battle proved the war would be long and painful.
Ulysses S. Grant
Commander of the Army of the Potomac (Union Army) from 1864-1865, had fought successfully in the West prior
William Sherman
First modern general to understand the concept of total war. Destroyed South during "march to the sea" from Atlanta to Savannah, example of total war
Mississippi River
Control of this river would cut the Confederacy in half
April 6-7, 1862- Major Union Victory in the West. Grant wins due to the reinforcements from Don Carlos Buell.
54th Massachusetts
African American Company responsible for leading an attack on Ft. Wagner.
Richmond, Virginia
Confederate Capital
May 1st, 1863- Confederate Victory. Jackson is shot and later dies in this battle.
July 1st-3rd, 1863. Major turning point of the war. It is a Union Victory, and the South retreats from the North.
In May and June of 1863, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's armies converged on Vicksburg, investing the city and entrapping a Confederate army under Lt. Gen. John Pemberton. On July 4, Vicksburg surrendered after prolo…
Appomattox Court House
Lee surrendered to Grant in this town.
Who exactly did the Emancipation Proclamation free? Why didn't Lincoln free slaves in all the states?
The proclamation freed slaves in rebelling states and areas of rebelling states. Lincoln didn't free all the slaves because not all slave holders were in rebellion, therefore he couldn't take law-abiding citizens property.
Explain the positive good theory of slavery. Do you agree with this theory? Why or why not?
The positive theory of slaves takes whites out of menial jobs and introduces Africans to white Christians.
Give one reason why most southerners were upset about Lincoln's election in 1860.
They thought Lincoln would abolish slavery, and Lincoln captured very few votes in the South.
Give one reason why Robert E. Lee invaded the North multiple times during the Civil War.
Robert E. Lee invaded the North for supplies, to "take" the war to the North, and to win foreign recognition
Total war is against all.
Define total war and discuss whether you agree with this concept. Use specific details in your argument.
List and explain two causes of the Civil War.
Slavery, states rights, Lincoln's election in 1860, Inability to compromise
men and women who had been slaves
rebuilding of the South after the Civil War
Ten Percent Plan
Lincoln's plan that allowed a southern state to form a new government after 10 percent of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States
Wade-Davis Bill
(Congressional Bill) an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office to anyone who had volunteered to fight for the Confederacy, 1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms…
Thirteenth Amendment
an 1865 amendment to the United States Constitution that bans slavery throughout the nation
Black codes
1865-6 Southern laws that severely limited the rights of African Americans after the Civil War, Any code of law that defined and especially limited the rights of former slaves after the Civil War.- Primary pur…
Radical Republicans
members of Congress during Reconstruction who favored protection for black rights and wanted to ensure that freedmen received the right to vote - this was a precondition for readmission of Southern states into the Un…
Fourteenth Amendment
an 1868 amendment to the United States Constitution that guarantees equal protection of the laws, A constitutional amendment giving full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians.
Radical Reconstruction
Congress takes charge. period beginning in 1867, when the Republicans who had control in both houses of Congress, took charge of Reconstruction. They favored policy that would give Federal gov authority to limit the polit…
Reconstruction Act
an 1867 law that threw out the southern state governments that had refused to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment, Abolished governments formed in the former Confederate states; divided those states into five military districts; se…
The Impeachment Crisis
to bring charges of serious wrongdoing against a public official. Congress tries to impeach Pres Johnson (p514)
Fifteenth Amendment
amendment to the United States Constitution that forbids any state from denying a male citizen the right to vote because of race, color or previous condition of servitude. However, states could still limit sufferag…
white Southerner who supported the Republicans during Reconstruction, A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
uncomplimentary nick-name for a northerner who went to the South after the Civil War, A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their…
during Reconstruction, white southerners who resisted change
Ku Klux Klan
(A grassroots vigilante movement) Organized in Tennessee in 1866, secret society organized after the Civil War to reassert white supremacy by means of violence
person who rents a plot of land from another person and farms it in exchange for a share of the crop
poll tax
tax required before a person can vote, A tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
literacy test
examination to see if a person can read and write; used in the past to restrict voting rights
grandfather clause
law that excused a voter from a literacy test if his father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867
legal separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
New South
term to describe the South in the late 1800s when efforts were made to expand the economy by building up industry, The rise of a South after the Civil War which would no longe…
Military Reconstruction Act
It divided the South into five military districts that were commanded by Union generals. It was passed in 1867. It ripped the power away from the president to be commander in chief and se…
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
Panic of 1873
Economic panic caused by overexpansion and overspeculation, causing the nation's largest bank to collapse (and bringing with it many smaller banks, business firms and the stock market)
Compromise of 1877
-Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river; as long as Hayes became the president
Needs of the Postwar South
Land, infrastructure and economy needed to be rebuilt; Refugees and freed African Americans needed help
Johnson's Plan
Amnesty for those taking an oath of loyalty to the union; Required states to abolish slavery
Congressional Reconstruction
- Passed the 14th and 15th Amendments
Southern Reaction to Federal Reconstruction
Southerners Believed Northern Republicans were taking advantage of weak South
Reconstruction comes to a close
Scandals and economic problems weaken the Republicans
Whisky Ring
a scandal under Ulysses Grant Administration where whisky producers (centered in St. Louis) paid bribes to government officials and officials allowed them to keep millions of dollars in liquor taxes that should have gone to the federal treasury
New South Industries
Railroads are built
Force Act or KKK acts
1870-1871made interference with voting a federal crime and provided provisions for government supervision of elections
Crittenden Compromise
This was an unsuccessful effort to avert the Civil War during the winter of 1860-1861. Senator John J. Crittenden, a Kentucky Whig and disciple of Henry Clay, proposed six constitutional amendments and four resolutions.…
Fort Sumter
The "Battle" that started the war. When South Carolina seceded from the Union on December 20, 1860, United States Maj. Robert Anderson and his force of 85 soldiers were positioned at Fort Moultrie near…
Lincoln and habeas corpus
John Merryman, a state legislator from Maryland, is arrested for attempting to hinder Union troops from moving from Baltimore to Washington during the Civil War and is held at Fort McHenry by Union military offici…
Anaconda Plan
Involved blockading Confederate ports to cut off cotton exports and prevent the import of manufactured goods; and using ground and naval forces to divide the Confederacy into three distinct theaters: The far western theater,…
border states
The Border States were slave states that shared a border with free states to the north. These included Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri. As a rule, the Border States maintained strong cultural ties …
Ulysses S. Grant and Shiloh
On the morning of April 6, 1862, 40,000 Confederate soldiers under the command of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston poured out of the nearby woods and struck a line of Union soldiers occupying ground near Pitts…
George McClellan
Commanded the Army of the Potomac. Fought in the Eastern Theater. His plan was to land northern forces on a peninsula between the York and James Rivers southeast of Richmond and then march on…
Robert E. Lee
Was torn by the decision to support the Union join the Confederacy. He decided to join the confederacy because he didnt want to fight against his birthplace, Virginia, which had seceded. He fought in…
Stonewall Jackson
Brave commander of the Confederate Army that led troops at Bull Run. He died in the confusion at the Battle of Chancellorsville.
Antietam and its consequences
-Ended Lee's Strategic Campaign
Enrollment Act
The Enrollment Act of 1863 is the name given to the law which enabled the military draft to be used on a federal scale in the United States for the first time - although…
New York City draft riot
Irish Catholic immigrants and their children had been egged in by Democratic leader that Republicans wanted to free the slaves in order to bring them north to replace Irish workers.
a vocal faction of Democrats located in the Northern United States of the Union who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. Also called Peace Democrats
Election of 1864
5 political parties supported candidates for the presidency: War Democrats, Peace Democrats, Copperheads, Radical Republicans, & National Union Party; each political party offered a diff. point of view on how the war should be…
Sherman's "March to the Sea"
during the civil war, a devastating total war military campaign, led by union general William Tecumseh Sherman, that involved marching 60,000 union troops through Georgia from Atlanta to Savannah and destroying everything along there way (Total War)
Capital of the Confederacy
Famous as the site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant
Wartime Reconstruction
Lincoln's 10% Plan stated that if 10% of eligible voters took allegiance to the U.S. they could form a new state government and elect representatives and senators to go back to Congress and abolish slav…
Presidential Reconstruction
In December 1863 Lincoln introduced the first Reconstruction scheme, the Ten Percent Plan, thus beginning the period known as Presidential Reconstruction. The plan decreed that when one-tenth of a state's prewar voters had take…
Congressional (more often "Radical") Reconstruction
Angered by Johnson's actions, radical and moderate Republican factions decided to work together to shift the control of the Reconstruction process from he executive branch to the legislature. In mid-1866, they overrode the president's ve…
Military Reconstruction
1867; divided the South into five districts and placed them under military rule; required Southern States to ratify the 14th amendment; guaranteed freedmen the right to vote in convention to write new state constitutions
Freedman's Bureau
established in 1865 by Congress to help former black slaves and poor whites in the South in the aftermath of the U.S. Civil War (1861-65). Some 4 million slaves gained their freedom as a re…
Civil Rights Act of 1866
was the first United States federal law to define US citizenship and affirmed that all citizens were equally protected by the law.[1] It was mainly intended to protect the civil rights of African-Americans, in…
Thaddeus Stevens
Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. Stevens and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other. Known as a Radical Republican.
Charles Sumner
A leader of the Radical republicans along with Thaddeus Stevens. He was from Massachusetts and was in the senate. His two main goals were breaking the power of wealthy planters and ensuring that freedmen could vote
Waving the Bloody Shirt
This was a campaign tactic used by post-Civil War Republicans to remind northern voters that the Confederates were Democrats. The device was used to divert attention away from the competence of candidates and from ser…
Nathan Bedford Forrest and the Ku Klux Klan
General Forrest may have been one of the most respected cavalrymen of the Civil War, but his legend is marred by his racism. Before the Civil War, Forrest was a slave trader, and after…
Knights of White Camellia
similar to KKK, wanted to show white supremecy in south, also opposed republican party, consisted of more upper class southerners
White League
organization established to restore political power to the pre-civil war white democrats and did not hesitate to use violence to achieve that end
Edwin Stanton
Andrew Johnson tried to force him to resign.
Johnson's impeachment trial
determined to challenge the tenure of office act johnson fired stanton. the house of representatives then voted to impeach johnson the charge on johnson was that he had broken the law by refusing to up…
Grant presidency
US Grant wins Republican nomination in 1868; Congress hopes he can get things on track as a strong leader; alas scandal and corruption plague Grant's Administration, lack of political experience makes him unable to control other politicians
Hiram Revels
1st black senator
Blanche K. Bruce
Senator of Mississippi from 1875 to 1881 and was one of the first African Americans to serve a full term in the Senate.
Colfax Massacre
Easter sunday 1873. After many contested elections in Grant Parish, Louisiana, a group of whites armed with artillery and rifles marched on the courthouse to claim it and were met by a much smaller, …
A term used to describe a political alliance in the southern part of the US. Made up of people who wanted to drive out the freedmen, carpetbaggers and scalawags.
Mississippi Plan
1890 - In order to vote in Mississippi, citizens had to display the receipt which proved they had paid the poll tax and pass a literacy test by reading and interpreting a selection from…
Election of 1876
Ended reconstruction because neither canidate had an electorial majority. Hayes was elected, and then ended reconstruction as he secretly promised.
Electoral Commission of 1877
created to decide the disputed outcome of the electoral college vote in the 1876 presidential election; the eight Republicans and seven Democrats on the commission awarded all twenty disputed votes to Republican candidate Rutherfor…