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1. spending more money than it collects in taxes (this results in government debt)
Negotiation in which union and Management must accept an impartial observer's resolution of a dispute.
Work stoppage in which workers shut down all machines and refuse to leave a factory until their demands are met.
American Liberty League
formed by conservative business leaders to oppose the new deal programs
Works Progress Administration
A New Deal agency that built dams, post offices, hospitals, and other buildings.
National Labor Relations Board
Provides some protection for employess who raise complaints against emplayers for unfair labor practices in the private sector
Congress of Industrial Organizations
A federation of labor union for all unskilled workers. It provided a national labor union for unskilled workers, unlike the AFL, which limited itself to skilled workers.
Social Security Act
1. gives money to retirees, the unemployed, people with disabilities, and families with dependent children
no - sorry FDR
Did the New Deal end the Great Depression?
What gave people hope?
the sense of forward movement the New Deal created - so it did do something
1935 - according to this here textbook
When did the government increase its commitment to work relief?
ealier programs like the CCC
What had shown how such relief programs provided not just a source of income but also a sense of purpose and dignity?
What uplifted many Americans?
New Deal work-relief programs
the Democratic Party - pulbic support running high
Who rolled to an unprecedent victory in the congressional elections of 1934?
How many of all of the seats in Congress did Democrats hold?
What were the courts in the process of?
finding major parts of the New Deal unconstitional
What was the Second Hundred Days?
a period in which Congress passed laws extending government oversight of the banking industry and raising taxes for the wealthy - funded new relief programs for the still-struggling population
What did away with direct payments to Americans in need?
the Emergency Relief Appropriations Act - people had to work for pay from now on
What was the largest peacetime jobs program in U.S. history?
the Works Progress Adminstration (WPA) - employed 8.5 million Americans total on all kinds of public-works jobs at a cost of about $11 billion - roads, subways, airports, zoos, offices, schools, museums, factories - funded the arts
artists and writers who got the starts in the WPA
Who were Jackson Pollock, Ralph Ellison, Richard Wright, and Eudora Welty?
How many jobless Americans did the WPA employ at its peak?
3.4 million - nearly a fourth of the unemployed people in the country
lifted people's spirits
What did the opportunity to earn a paycheck rather than get a handout do?
What did the Social Security Act in 1935 do?
created the Social Security system that provided a pension - regular payments - for many people 65 and older - people no longer needed to fear hunger and homelessness once they became too ol…
How did Congress fund Social Security?
passed taxes affecting both workers and employers
In helped older Americans, who did Roosevelt hope to undermine the attacks of?
Dr. Francis Townsend - California doctor whose plan for older Americans had attracted many supporters - plan was more radical than Social Security
excluded certain workers from the program - farmworkers, household workers, and government employees
What did Roosevelt have to do to avoid a huge tax hike when funding Social Security?
What was Construction of the Dam?
a mural by William Gropper - shows workers on a WPA construction project
What marked a major step forward for organized labor?
the passage of NIRA during the First New Deal - guaranteed workers the right to form unions and bargain collectively
What did many businesses do?
ignored the new rules of the NIRA - battled the growth of unions - labor-related violence increased - FDR was unwilling to push business too hard to accept the new laws - government had li…
What did FDR support after the Schechter court case?
the Wagner Act - sponsored by Senator Robert Wagner of New York
What did the National Labor Relations Act do?
outlawed a number of antilabor practices, such as the creation of company-sponsored unions - created the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) - determined whether employees wanted union representation - could require businesses to accept employee voting results
What was the AFL created as?
a collection, or federation, of smaller unions representing the interests of skilled workers - organized within specific crafts rather than across board industries - looked down on unskilled facotry workers, many of whom were immigrants
What did the growth of mass production swell the ranks of?
Who was John L. Lewis?
head of the United Mine Workers - sought take advantage of the mass of unskilled workers - formed the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) - later became the Congress of Industrial Organizations
What happened in December of 1936?
the United Auto Workers - part of the CIO - went on strike against General Motors at the plant in Flint, Michigan - simply sat down and stopped working
What is a sit-down strike?
a strike like that against GM that requires the strickers to stay at the factory day and night until the dispute is resolved - relied on outside support to provide food and to look after their families
What did the sit-down strike create for GM?
a complicated situation - couldn't use security forces to scatter them and hire "scab" labor - any effort to take back the factory might turn violent and lead to a bad image - asked…
What actions helped establish the CIO as a major force in organized labor?
actions against GM and U.S. Steel - 1/4 of American workforce unionized by 1940s
Who recorded GM's recognition of the CIO?
What was the Rural Electrification Act?
empowered the Rural Electrification Administration - loaned money to farm cooperatives and other groups trying to bring electricity to people living outside of cities and towns
What had for-profit power companies geen unwilling to do?
put in miles of power lines needed to serve sparsely-settled areas - number of rural homes with electricity grew from 10% to 90% under the REA
What did Roosevelt campaign on?
a solid record of legislative achievement - unemployment sliced in half but still high - incomes and earnings up sharply - hope and help given
Who ran against Roosevelt in 1936?
Governor Alf Landon of Kansas - mild reformist - no serious threat
What was the Union Party?
a new party formed by Father Charles Coughlin and Dr. Francis Townsend
To attract Union Party supporters, what did Roosevelt do?
gave speeches thundering against big business - business leaders poured money into the American Liberty League in response
Senator Lester Dickinson - The American Mercury
What recognized the shift in government as a revolution?
it was overly bureaucratic and created a planned economy
What arguments did Republicans use to attack the New Deal?
How many states did Landon carry?
only 2 - Roosevelt won... by a lot - Union party polled less than 2% of the popular vote - Democrats again had both houses of Congress - also won 26 of 33 races for governor
How did African Americans partake in the elections of 1936?
they switched from Republican, the party of Lincoln, to Democrat - loyalty continued to this day
What did FDR do as a result of his frustration with the courts striking down many New Deal programs?
presented to Congress a plan to reorganize the nation's courts - give president the power to appoint to many new judges and expand the Supreme Court by up to six justices - argued the cha…
What did many people see FDR's actions to reorganize the courts as?
a clumsy effort to "pack" the Supreme Court with friendly justices - attempt to upset the constitutional balance of power
What did FDR end the year he entered looking invincible with?
a crushing loss - some of his own party began to desert him
What did Roosevelt lose?
much of 1937 in his doomed battle over expanding the Supreme Court
What did the Farm Tenancy Act do?
aided some of the poorest of the nation's poor - tenant farmers and sharecroppers - gave them a chance to buy land of their own
In what unlikely place did FDR win some important victories?
the Supreme Court - favored New Deal programs - upheld a law requiring minimum wage - signaled a willingness to let legislatures regulate the economy
What did the Court declare constitutional?
When did the nation's economy suffer another setback?
fall of 1937 - sharp drop in stock market - 2 million more Americans lost their jobs
What had Roosevelt hoped to do?
cut back on spending, fearing the growing federal deficit - spends more than takes in through taxes and other income - unemployment rose - spending increased
Who argued that deficit spending could provide jobs and stimulate the economy?
British economist John Maynard Keynes - against classical economic theory of balanced budgets
When did the economy begin to rebound?
summer of 1938 - positive feelings about FDR and the New Deal began to fade
Second New Deal
A new set of programs and reforms launched by FDR in 1935.
A shortfall created when the federal government spends more in a fiscal year than it receives, with both New Deals the deficit grew from $461 million to $4.4 billion.
John Maynard Keynes
In the 1930s, Keynes spearheaded a revolution in economic thinking, overturning the older ideas of neoclassical economics that held that free markets would, in the short to medium term, automatically provide full employment, as …
the spending of government funds in commercial enterprises, to stimulate the national economy
a sudden, rapid increase`
Law passed in 1935 that aided unions by legalizing collective bargaining and closed shops, and by establishing the National Labor Relations Board.
The process of negotiating as a group.
Fair Labor Standards Act
Banned child labor and set a national minimum wage.
Where FDR tried to add more members to the Supreme Court to pass his programs.
Put into place after FDR asked for higher estate and gift taxes on larger incomes, and a corporate income tax graduated to the size of the profits of businesses; passed to help "to preven…
Public Utility Holding Company Act
Passed to control the nations powerful utility companies ;where 13 holding companies controlling 75% of the nation's electric power in 1935); designed to restrict each company to operating a single system in a single a…
Soil Conservation Act
Restricted production under the name of conservation; the government paid farmers to plant soil conserving crops on part of their land
Federal Crop Insurance Act
Created the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation to ensure wheat crops against natural disasters like drought, flood, and plant disease
Rural Electrification Administration
Transformed American rural life by making electricity available at low rates to American farm families in areas private power companies refused to service; made of modern amenities (e.g. Radio) available in the countryside
Fair Labor Standard Act
Created a maximum hour work week (40 hours); set minimum wages, set up time and a half pay for overtime, forbade labor by children under 16 years of age; boosted buying power consumers
National Youth Administration
Established by WPA to reduce competition for jobs by supporting education and training of you; paid grants to over 2 million high school and college students in return for work performed in their schools; …
Resettlement Administration Act
Assisted poor families and sharecroppers in beginning new farms or purchasing land; also developed rural areas as new towns were built to set up "Greenbelt communities"
National Housing Act of 1937
Provided housing for urban poor setting up US Housing Authority to make loans (granted 500,000,000) to cities and states to clear away slums and building low-cost housing
Farm Security Administration
It lent money to sharecroppers and tenant farmers to help them buy their own farms. It also established camps for migrant workers.
Central part of the new deal, became a bit of a joke and political cartoons and critiques of FDR
took money from the rick and shared it with the poor, created "Share the Wealth" program but he assassinated at the height of fame
Father Charles Coughlin
a Roman Catholic priest who used radio to reach a mass audience. Once a supporter of FDR but later became a harsh critic of him
Dr. Francis Townsend
Called for a pension plan to the forgotten victim of the depression = Americans over 60
Congress of Industrial Organization
Created in order to strengthen unions that were pushed around under the new deal; became a strong political force as a result
Court Packing Scheme
Showed FDR overstepping his bounds when she tried to pass legislation to increase the number of Supreme Court justices and get rid of those that served 10 years and "age limit "
Slowdown in the economy
Second Agriculture Adjustment Administration
Found in court to be an illegal way the government was able to collect a tax by limiting production on purpose
Allowed too much power to big companies that bordered on monopolies and would not allow unions to form to protect workers
group of black leaders who unofficially advised President Franklin D. Roosevelt concerning the situation of African Americans