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Environmental change

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This is a mixture of gases that surrounds Earth. In addition to containing the oxygen you need to breathe, it protects you from the sun's damaging rays and is always changing.
earth, air, and water woven into each, the spark of life
Global Warming
the recent and ongoing global average increase in temperature near the Earth's surface
The average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period-typically over several decades
Acid Rain
Poisons fish, damages plants/ trees, diminishes soil
Little Ice Age
is a period between about 1300 and 1870 during which Europe and North America were subjected to much colder climates, generally, than during the 20th century.
process of heat transfer by the circulation or movement of a liquid or a gas
Average sea level
what does A.L.S.stand for
the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water
Ability to float
the degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other locations
Cambrian extinction
knocked out 80% of marine life
a central area in Greek cities used both as a marketplace and as a meeting place
chemical weathering
the transformation of rock into one or more new compounds
Device that measures air pressure in millibars
since the world is only 6,000 yrs old (bible), events to make the world must have been CRAZY! Huge volcanos, storms, etc.
Pyramid of Numbers
Elton. Higher up you go, the larger and the fewer
Pyramid of Energy
Lindeman. Energy is going up the food chain and being lost along the way
Raymond Lindeman
Ecosystems are just systems that transform ENERGY
a place where people live, work, and play
Challenged Clements, claiming they are just random interactions.
Climax Community
Relatively stable community at the end of succession
r selected
colonizers. r represents instantaneous growth rate. They're good at spreading their seed FAST. The hare, not the tortoise. Dominate early stages of succession
k Selected
bigger than r selected, better at lasting. The Tortoise, not the hare. Dominate later stages of succession
life history strategies
things organisms do that relate to how well they reproduce. E.g. # offspring, size of offspring, development rate, dispersal ability, parental care
non-equilibrium theory
Emphasizes disturbances that are essential to the ecosystem. E.g. pine trees that can't grow w/o a fire
mosaic of patches
disturbances take homogenous environments and turn them into this.
Predator-prey cycle
lynx and hare numbers have the same periodicity. hare spikes and falls slightly sooner than the lynx
anaerobic, can't use sugar, protein, or carbs. They eat methanol, formate, acetate.
halophilic bacteria
salt-loving extremophiles
thermophilic bacteria
heat-loving extremophiles
piled up cyanobacteria. each sheet called a biofilm. biofilms stack up and make a _______. The one on top was alive, all below it dead. THEY MAKE OXYGEN and dominated the world for a long time
banded-iron deposits
reduced iron suspended in water. The first oxygen in the world bound with iron in water. Oxygen made by photosynthesis made iron. Once all the free iron in the ocean got used up it sta…
A member of a state who is legally entitled to full civil rights and is legally obliged to perform defined public duties.
oxygen revolution
large, multicellular plants and animals couldn't exist with low levels of oxygen. Iron became saturated with oxygen so it built up in the air.
Cambrian explosion
BOOM! lots of animals all of a sudden. Not one major new phylum has evolved since then.
They found a very well preserved bed of Cambrian fossils
My ancestor! 2" long. World's first chordate
Permian/Triassic boundary
claimed 96% of life
Red Queen hypothesis
Must run to stay in place! eventually even the well adapted organisms will be out-adapted
forces from back in the day are equal to today.
Pleistocene Blitzkrieg
72% of earths' large mammals went extinct. Highly selective. Small things survived. Maybe humans?
highly specialized organisms. Go extinct more easy
Mark off political areas. Linear, but often occur within broader border zones. Their demarcation may become a source of conflict.
Natural Theology
Philosophical School started by John Ray. Maintained that every living thing was perfectly adapted to its way of lift.
argument from design
all of nature is designed in accord with a predetermined benevolent, and supernatural plan.
Limiting factors
a biotic or abiotic factor in an organism's environment that restricts numbers, reproduction, or distribution of an organism
physical factors
Extrinsic limiting factors:
Intrinsic limiting factors
Come from with inside. Change in reproductive physiology
Keystone predator
Sea urchin populations exploded and ate up all the kelp, within this otters were the predators.
central place theory
Theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another.
the distance between two consecutive and equivalent points on a wave
Compass rose
A pointer showing the four cardinal direction and sometimes intermediate directions as well
what is another name for the tectonic plates that float on the mantle?
what is the layer beneath the crust called?
All of the water on Earth
What is Continental Drift?
When all contentients drift apart. They all used to fit together like a puzzle.
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
have a particular combination of average annual temperature and annual precipitation and contain distinctive plant growth forms that are adapted to that climate
A set of features of things linked (joined) together to form a whole
isolated system
there is no such thing. cannot exchange matter or energy with their surroundings
closed system
can exchange energy, but not matter, across their boundaries. earth is essentially this.
open system
can exchange matter or energy across their boundaries
steady state
is only maintained in equilibrium by a constant input and output of materials to the system. Many systems, like living system
systems science
break down large, complex system into smaller pieces that can be analyzed
systems measurement
gathering extensive baseline data
systems modeling
third stage. build complex computer models.
Clouds that are thin, delicate ice crystals clouds often appearing as veil like patches or thin wispy fibers.
Positive feedback
A process that causes an outcome that ends up speeding up the original process
Negative feedback
A process that causes an outcome that ends up slowing or stopping the original process
Second Law of Thermodynamics
energy becomes scattered or dispersed
kinetic energy
energy of motion. Light/heat/electricity all have this
potential energy
stored energy. water behind a dam, batteries, gasoline, firewood.
Process that uses light energy to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and carbohydrates