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a large, complex organization consisting of appointed officials.
complex bureaucratic rules and procedures that must be followed to get something done.
the rejection of a presidential or administrative-agency action by a vote of one or both houses of Congress without the consent of the president.
the ability of a congressional committee to review and approve certain agency decisions in advance and without passing a law.
the yearly granting of permission to begin or continue a government agency/program.
funds for government programs that are collected and spent outside the regular government budget; the amounts are typically determined by the pre-existing law rather than by annual appropriations
a legislative grant of money to finance a government program
legislative permission to begin or continue a government program or agency.
a network of people in Washington-based interest groups, on Congressional staffs, in universities and think tanks, and in the mass media who regularly discuss and advocate public policies (i.e. health care or auto safety)
a close relationship between an agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group
a job to be filled by a person whom a government agency has identified by name.
the government offices to which people are appointed on the grounds of merit as ascertained by a written examination or by the having met certain selection criteria (such as training, educational attainments, or prior experiences).
the extent to which appointed bureaucrats can choose course of action and make policies that are NOT spelled out in advance by laws.
an economic theory that government should NOT regulate or interfere with commerce.
another phrase for political patronage—that is, the practice of giving the fruits of a party's victory, such as jobs and contracts, to the loyal members of that party.