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Level 54

Twentieth-Century Rejections of Liberalism

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Bloody Sunday
a massive protest group that was unarmed and demonstrating marched peacefully with a petition to Czar Nicholas II; 100's were gunned down by the czar's imperial guard; this marked the turning point in Russian history
Russian Revolution
1905 - fuelled by Russian authoritarianism, the slowness of reform, and events such as Bloody Sunday are but a few examples
Rejection of Liberalism
many nations and nation states throughout modern history have rejected liberalism in favour of totalitarian systems of government; Soviet Union implemented ideologies of communism and Nazi Germany implemented the practices of fascism
Totalitarian regimes
radical, as in the Soviet Union, where the change desired is a move toward the far left side of the economic spectrum and a complete rejection of the political and economic traditions of the p…
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Conformity to the Regime
extensive use of propaganda, coercive power and communications technologies ensure that totalitarian governments maintain strict control over their citizens; conformity is demanded
Means to ensure conformity
extensive local, regional and national organization; youth, professional, cultural, and athletic groups (often forced participation); a secret police using terror; indoctrination through education; the censorship of the media; redirecting popular discontent (use of scapegoats)
USSR and Nazi Germany
were attempts to hold off and reject the beliefs and values of liberalism: a turning away from the worth of the individual and the principle of limited government in favour of a collective, all powe…
freeing of the serfs in 1864 by Czar Alexander II; serfs: low-income farmers
people who disagree with the government
Vladimir Ilich Ulyannov
better known as Lenin; the leader of the communist Soviet Union
Socialist Revolutionary Party
leading to a backlash of repression by the government
Ineffectual Reform
the czar was forced to allow some reforms: basic civil rights such as the freedom of expression and the freedom of assembly; universal suffrage; the creation of an elected legislative assembly called the Duma
the czar limited the powers of the Duma prior to the first session using the Fundamental Laws of 1906
February 1917
mass demonstrations and strikes coalesced into an outright revolution. The czar abdicated and a provisional government was declared.
Lenin's communist Bolsheviks
took over the machinery of government in a very well-organized attack in October 1917
August 1919
Germany enacted a new constitution; a republic with a modern, liberal democratic political struture
elected by universal suffrage; era known as Weimar Republic
Austro-Hungarian Empire
allies of Germany in WWI
Treaty of Versailles
provoked a lasting resentment and discontent
November 1919
German populace blamed the government for the humiliation and economic hardship the treaty would cause for years afterwards
1923 Germany
declared it could not continue making the reparations payments imposed by the Treaty of Versailles
The Dawes Plan
American banks lent money to the German government, allowing them to continue reparations payments in accordance to the Treaty
Germany and the Great Depression
plunged the country into economic hardship once again with widespread discontent
Hitler and the Nazi Party
took advantage of the despair and unemployment that was overtaking the German populace by declaring that it was the responsibility of the state to provide every citizen with an opportunity to earn a living
1871 The German Empire
had become a highly industrialized economic power however ruled by traditional ruling families and institutions
a government where the real political power is held directly by the Kaiser and the chancellor
Chancellor Otto von Bismark
minimized the appeal of liberal reformers by adopting social reforms and creating a welfare state; the introduction of health, accident, old-age and disability insurance
Absolute Nationalism
Hitler's absolute nationalism, which called for the unification of all German speaking peoples, the use of private paramilitary organizations to stifle dissent and terrorize opposition, and the centralization of decision making in a single leader,to whom everyone owed loyalty
appealed to many Germans; the German Confederation, led by Austria, some areas of Czechoslovakia and Poland
Advocacy of Law and Order
the Nazi's appealled to many of the Germans and resulted in chaos; Hitler capitalized on the fear this caused Germans by claiming that a stronger government was needed to control the lawlessness and instigated polit…
National Socialist German Workers' Party founded February 24, 1920
often exaggerates and misrepresents information to rally support for a cause or issue. Political groups use a variety of propaganda techniques to try to convince the masses that their version of truth and their vi…
Totalitarian Soviet Union
became an industrialized country with an effective government and assumed an international diplomatic role
Totalitarian Nazi Germany
escaped the humiliation of the Treaty of Versailles
Lenin and Marxism
Lenin and the Bolsheviks attempted to rapidly transform Russia into a communist society; in 1918 they introduced a group of policies known as "war communism"
New Economic Policy
allowed peasants to won farmland and decide what they would produce; 1921
Joseph Stalin
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial produc…
collectivism - all land was taken away from private owners and combined in large, collectively worked farms; food producing factories with production quotas
were a class of prosperous land-owning peasants; who had not already given up their property voluntarily were arrested and deported, or in some cases executed; they became the scapegoats and were blamed for hardships that the peasants increasingly faced
The Breadbasket of the USSR
major famine in 1932-1933 was used as a weapon to try to eliminate the Ukrainian nationalism and identity by Stalin; 7 million people died in this genocide (Holodomor)
Famine of 1932-1933
Stalin's leadership became a disillusion for the politburo (political bureau, the ruling elite of the Communist Party) and as a result he had many of the members executed this became known as the Great Purge
The Great Purge
1936-1938 "Old Bolsheviks" were convicted and executed or sent into exile; most of the highest ranking officers of the Red Army were convicted and executed; 1.5-2 million people were arrested for "counterrevolutionary activities" or polit…
Dictated conformity
total control; total conformity even via abolishing or reinterpreted fairy tales in the accordance with the new communist ideology; new generations would learn the beliefs and values of communism
Ideology of fascism
stemmed from the deep-seated hatred of liberalism, Jews, and communists - Adolf Hitler
November 1932
the Nazi Party received 33 per cent of the popular vote and took 1/3 of the seats in the Reichstag
January 1933
Hitler was named chancellor; he moved quickly to transform Germany into a totalitarian state; using a communist threat and ensuing panic it caused in the population to call new elections and pass the Reichstag …
The Enabling Act
restrict personal freedom, freedom of opinion, freedom of the press, and freedom of organization and assembly; eliminate the privacy of mail, telegrams, and telephone conversations; eliminate the need for warrants to conduct searches; pass legisla…
June 30, 1934
Hitler ordered the assassination of the leadership of the SA; this removed any remaining challenges to Hitler's leadership; "Night of the Long Knives"
August 19, 1934
President Paul von Hindenburg died and Hitler declared himself Fuhrer (leader)
National Labour Service created massive public projects such as the construction of the Autobhnen, providing employment, re-arming of the military, stimulated industry, farming and industries were given government susidies
Hitler's design for Germany to become a self-sufficient or independent company from all other nations; however, workers had few rights and industries were strictly regulated
The Scapegoat defined by Nazi Germany
the Jewish people and some minority groups
1933 Series of Laws
Jews are barred from working fro the government, becoming lawyers, and working as editors. The number of Jewish students in public schools is strictly limited; 1935, Jewish officers are expelled from the army, the Nurem…
Jews and Jewish people would be detained in concentration camps and ghettos, and often used as slave labour, before being transported to extermination camps
Police State
Germany was overseen by the Gestapo and the SS who were controlled by the Nazi Party.
Aryan Race
the most important tenet of Nazi ideology was the superiority of the pure race, and eugenics - controlling human reproduction so that desirable genetic traits are encouraged and undesirable traits are eliminated - was pract…
sub-humans were groups of people deemed racially or socially inferior; those people were ostracized and placed in concentration camps with the Jewish
The Law for the Encouragement of Marriage
Patriarchy dominated the Nazi ideology. Loans were made to newlywed couples of 1000 marks and allowed them to keep 250 marks for each child they had. A woman would receive a gold medal for bearing more than eight children
Children Under the Nazi Regime
were courted by the government; encouraged to report any inappropriate (anti-Nazi) behaviour by other, including their parents
boys from the age of 6-10
Young German Boys
organization from the ages for 10-14
Hitler youth
boys became a part of this group at the age of 14-18 when they went into either the Labour Service or the armed-forces
Young Maidens
age 10-14
League of German Maidens
14-18 where they were trained in domesticity and child rearing