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iOS App Design: Intro to C


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Semicolon
Statement terminator- each statement must end with a semicolon
Whitespace
space ignored by the compiler
Data types
Extensive system used for declaring variables or functions of different types. The type of a
Enumerated types
arithmetic types and they are used to define variables that can only be assigned certain
Void Type
The type specifier void indicates that no value is available.
Derived Type
(a) Pointer types, (b) Array types, (c) Structure types, (d) Union types and (e) Function types.
Variable Type
They are char, int, float, double and void
Variable Declaration
A line of programming code that alerts the operating system that the program needs to
Lvalues & Rvalues
Lvalue : An expression that is an lvalue may appear as either the left-hand or right-hand
C
General - purpose, high level development language
Text Editor
(computer science) an application that can be used to create and view and edit text files. C files
Compiler
A highly specialized piece of software that takes a programming language understandable by humans
Preprocessor Commands
begin with a pound sign (#) and perform some action before the compiler translates the
Functions
Group of statements that together perform a task. Every C program has at least one function, which
Variables
Name given to a storage area that our programs can manipulate
Statements & Expressions
Whats being expressed
Comments
Texted ignored by the compiler. For human organization
Token
either a keyword, an identifier, a constant, a string literal, or a symbol.
Identifier
identifier is a name used to identify a variable, function, or any other user-defined item. An
Constant
The constants refer to fixed values that the program may not alter during its execution. These
String literals
Represents a sequence of characters.
Symbol
Objects that carry out a certain function
Basic Type
arithmetic types and consists of the two types: (a) integer types and (b) floating-point types.
Integer Type
any positive or negative number without a decimal point [1, 2, 3]
Keywords
Special set of "reserved" words. Can't be used in any other manner.
arithmetic operators
+ adds two operands
relational operators
== Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes
logical operators
&& Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero, then condition becomes
assignment operators
= Simple assignment operator, Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand
precedence
Order of operation with operators
loop
Statement that calls for the execution of a statement a multiple number of times, includes for, while, do
return type
the data type of the value a function returns
function name
the name of the function
parameters
a placeholder that receives a value with the function is called
function body
contains a collection of statements that define what the function does
local variables
Variables that are declared inside a function and can only be accessed by statements that are
global variables
Variables that are declared outside the functions, usually at the top of the program and
arrays
A data structure which can store a fixed size sequential collection of elements of the *same type*
initialize
a statement used to list the elements in an array
index
Used to access the specific elements of an array by number
pointers
variable, whose value is the address of another variable, i.e., direct address of the memory
*
Symbol often denoting a 'pointer'
&
Symbol that indicates the address of a variable
string
one-dimensional array of characters which is terminated by a null character '\0'.
structures
User defined data type that can hold data items or variables of different kinds, members are
union
A special data type that enables user to store different data types in the same memory location; only one
type casting
way to convert a variable from one data type to another data type
memory management
Use of functions to allocate, reallocate and free memory
stack
Organized data management
heap
Unorganized data management