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serves as as security device between a computer and Internet sites or between multiple computer
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
helps distinguish individual computers since there are millions on
Resource Allocation
Multiple users or jobs running at the same time must share CPU cycles, main memory, file
The one program always running (the operating system)
Memory Hierarchy
Registers, Cache, Main Memory, Electronic/Magnetic Disks, Optical Disks, Tapes
Device Controller
processor that controls the physical actions of one or more storage devices
Device Driver
a program that determines how a computer will communicate with a peripheral device
Direct Memory Access (DMA)
Uses one interrupt per block without intervention from the CPU
Multiprocessor Systems
Systems with 2 or more processors in close communication sharing the computer bus, clock,
Advantages of Multiprocessor
Increased Throughput, Economy of Scale, Increased Reliability
Getting more work done in less time
Asymmetric Multiprocessing
Each processor is assigned a specific task and a master controls the system.
Symmetric Multiprocessing
Most common type, each processor performs all tasks, all are peers
organizes jobs (code and data) so the CPU always has one to execute
time sharing
Multitasking: CPU executes multiple jobs by switching among them so frequently the user doesn't