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OS Services
User Interface, Program Execution, I/O Operations, File-system manipulation, Communications, Error
User OS Interface
Command Interpreter or Graphical User Interface
Command Interpreter
Shells, get and execute the next user-specified command.
System Calls
Provide an interface to the services made available by the OS
Application Programming Interface (API)
specifies a set of functions that are available to an application
Types of System Calls
process control, file manipulation, device manipulation, information maintenance,
Inter-process Communication
Information sharing between processes to speed up computation, allow modularity,
Message Passing Model
A connection is opened between processes and messages are exchanged either directly or
Shared-Memory Model
Processes use shared-memory-create and shared-memory-attach system calls to create and
Simple structure. Application Program > Resident System Program > MS-DOS Drivers > ROM/BIOS & Device
Layered OS Approach
Dijskra. Scheduler > Memory Management > Communication > Manage I/O and all devices >
moves as much as possible out of kernel and creates modules (Mac OSX)
A Program in execution (program counter, stack, data section)
Process Control Block
Process State, Program Counter, CPU Registers, CPU Scheduling Information, Memory
Job Queue
All processes in system