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Ready Queue
All processes in memory ready to run
Device Queue
Processes waiting for I/O Action
Execution
Parent/Child run concurrently
Mechanism
how to do something
Policies
determine what will be done
Modules
Scheduling classes, file systems, loadable system calls, executable formats, STREAMS modules,
Hybrid Structure
layered system in which one layer is a Mach microkernel. Application Environments > Kernel
Virtual Machines
abstract the hardware into several different execution environments. Create illusion that
VM Benefits
complete protection of the system resources, perfect for development
Text Section
program code
Data Section
contains global variables
Stack
contains temporary data (function parameters, return addresses, local variables)
Heap
memory that is dynamically allocated during process run time
Process States
New > Running > Waiting > Ready > Terminated
Threads
Allows one task at a time