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Level 7

Competency 7: Human Development and Learning


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functional play
Most common from birth to age 2, includes movement and sensory exploration.
symbolic play
Beginning at around age 2, this type of play involves using objects to represent different things, or engaging in role-play.
games with rules play
Beginning at around school age, children gain the ability to agree upon and abide by rules in their play.
onlooker play
Watching others play, but not joining in.
solitary play
Playing by one's self.
parallel play
Children playing side-by-side, occassionally mimicing each other, but not directly engaging with one another.
associative play
Children play a similar game side-by-side, talk to each other, but there is little joint focus.
cooperative play
Children play together in a group of two or more, with a common focus.
assimilation
Fitting new information into existing mental structures (from Piaget).
Jean Piaget
A Swiss developmental psychologist, whose work regarding childhood development is often referenced and highly-regarded. He proposed that learning fits into three basic structures (called "schema"): assimilation, accommodation, and equilibrium.
accommodation
Modifying your current schema, or creating new schema in order to account for new information (from Piaget).
disequilibrium
The process that results when new information arrives that can neither be assimilated nor accommodated (from Piaget).
equilibrium
The resulting mental state when your understanding of the world makes sense to you and is functional (from Piaget).
sensorimotor
The first developmental stage (from Piaget), age 0 - 2. The child is exploring the world through senses and motor skill development. They learn to distinguish themselves from the rest of the world.
object permanence
The concept (that very young children learn) that objects are real and will exist even when they are not visible.
preoperational
The second developmental stage (from Piaget), age 2 - 6. The child is very imaginative and engages in games of fantasy. They are egocentric, and believe others see things the same way as they do. They can only focus on a single aspect of a situation at a time.
concrete operations
The third developmental stage (from Piaget), age 7 - 11. Reversibility (can mentally reverse a situation) and conservation (objects retain their mass and weight, even if they are in a different shape) are key developments of this stage. They are also able to arrange things into classes and series.
formal operations
The fourth and final developmental stage (from Piaget), from 12 to adulthood. This is marked by the ability to understand and formulate abstract ideas, think deductively and inductively, and think critically.
heteronomous morality
When younger children believe that the rules are unbreakable and unchangeable. They obey out of fear, and will tattle on others (from Piaget).
autonomous morality
When children get older, and become autonomous. They are willing to challenge rules. They realize punishment is not automatic.
Jerome Bruner
He proposed the three modes of learning based on cognitive development. From youngest to oldest, they are: enactive mode, iconic mode, and symbolic mode.
enactive mode
Learning through interaction with one's environment. (from Bruner)
5E model
Also known as the "learning cycle model," this teaching strategy seeks to capture students' attention and improve their understanding of a lesson through use of the following techniques: "engage, explore, explain, extend/elaborate, and evaluate."
symbolic mode
Learning through symbols and words. (from Bruner)
scaffolding
A teaching tool, whereby support and assistance is provided to learners through examples, diagrams, modeling, etc. during various stages of the greater learning process.
zone of proximal development
The distance between a student's ability to independently solve problems, and their ability to do so with help from someone more capable.
Erik Erikson
He developed a life-cycle conception of personality development. During life, we experience various social crises, which can be generalized by: Trust versus Mistrust, Autonomy v. Doubt, Initiation v. Guilt, Industry v. Inferiority, Identity v. Role Confusion, Intimacy v. Isolation, Generativity v. Self-Absorption, and Integrity v Despair.
behaviorism
A learning theory based on using immediate consequences to teach a desired action.
extrinsic reinforcers
A reward, such as good grades or ice-cream, used as reinforcement.
intrinsic reinforcers
A sense of accomplishment, or other good feelings associated with "doing well," used as a source of personal motivation.
constructivism
The view that learning should be structured so that learners can incorporate previous knowledge, have a sense of purpose and responsibility for their learning, and encourage problem solving and discovery.
modification
When teaching students with disabilities, changing the standard of learning or the content the student is expected to learn.
accommodation
When teaching students with disabilities, giving the student an alternative way to complete a learning task (or providing different materials, such as an audio book for a blind student) WITHOUT changing what the student is expected to learn or know.
permission
In order to use an accommodation in your classroom, that accommodation MUST be specified on the IEP or 504, and used regularly in classroom instruction. Furthermore, what must be obtained from the student in question's parents?