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Neurones and glia


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Neuron
The functional cell in the nervous system.
Dendrites
Short branched structures coming off the main body of the neuron, receiving signals from presynaptic neurones
Stroma
General term for the special functional tissue of an organ
Axon
The long extension of the neurone along which the action potential travels
Multipolar Neuron
Neuron with one axon and many dendrites.
Bipolar Neuron
Neuron with one axon and one dendrite, found in the eye, nose and ear.
Pseudounipolar neuron
Sensory nerve like multipolar neurons but with the dendrite cluster connected to the soma by an axon.
Synapse
The gap between two communicating neurons
Presynaptic neuron
The transmitting neuron
Postsynaptic neuron
The receiving neuron
Synaptic vesicles
Sacs containing neurotransmitters released into the synapse
Axon hillock
Where the axon meets the soma.
Glial cells
Class of cells which supports neurons.
Neurolemmocyte
Glial cells forming the myelin sheath of peripheral nerve axons.
Astrocytes
Glial cells found in the blood-brain barrier which provide metabolic support to neurones, take up NT from synapses, and help maintain the blood-brain barrier
Ependymal cells
Glial cells separating the central nervous system from cerebrospinal fluid
Microglia
Glial cells which destroy microbes in the nervous system.
Oligodendrocytes
Glial cells which provide myelination in the central nervous system.