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Essential cell components


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Plasma membrane
Structure which encloses the cell.
Phospholipid bilayer
Molecular structure of the cell membrane.
Peripheral proteins
Proteins found on the outside of the plasma membrane, often bound to carbohydrate chains which identify the cell.
Integral Proteins
Proteins embedded through the depth of the membrane such as channels.
Nucleus
The genetic centre of the cell.
Karyoplasm
The fluid part of the nucleus of a cell.
Chromatin
DNA and surrounding protein structures.
Nucleolus
Cell structure at which the transcription and assembly of rRNA occurs.
Cytoskeleton
Tubules and filaments with various functions including structuring the cell.
Mitochondria
Energy-producing organelles within the cell.
Golgi apparatus
Manufactures complex biomolecules and transports them out of the cell.
Ribosomes
Complex of protein and rRNA which assemble proteins, found in the cytoplasm or bound to the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Endoplasmic reticulum
Cell structure which manufactures lipids and breaks down certain toxins.
Vesicles
Intracellular sacs formed of lipid membrane.
Phagocytic vesicles
Sacs responsible for the ingestion of materials into the cell.
Lysosomes
Cell structures which degrade proteins.
Peroxisomes
Cell structures which degrade hydrogen peroxide.
Centrioles
Groups of tubules involved in cell division.
Cytoplasm
Fluid portion of the cell.
Receptor
Integral proteins involved in cell signalling pathways.
Cytosol
Fluid within the cytoplasm of a cell
Extracellular domain
The external site of a cellular receptor.
Cytoplasmic domain
The internal site of a cellular receptor.
Ligand
A chemical which binds to a cell surface receptor to send a signal, such as a hormone or a growth factor.
Cell adhesion molecules
Proteins which keep cells in place by forming bonds with adjacent cells and extracellular matrix.
Gap junctions
Direct contact between the cytoplasm of adjacent cells, allowing the free flow of small metabolites.