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Cardiovascular system


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Heart
Pump which drives the circulation of blood.
Pulmonary circulation
Circulation of the blood through the lungs where it is oxygenated.
Systemic circulation
Circulation of blood through all of the body apart from the lungs.
Right atrium
Chamber of the heart which collects deoxygenated blood from the superior, inferior vena cava and coronary sinus.
Tricuspid valve
Valve between the right atrium and right ventricle.
Right ventricle
Chamber of the heart which receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary trunk.
Left atrium
Chamber of the heart which collects oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins.
Mitral valve
Valve between the left atrium and left ventricle.
Left ventricle
Chamber of the heart which receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta.
Parietal pericardium
Tough, fibrous sac surrounding the heart.
Sinoatrial node
Cluster of cells in the right atrium responsible for generating the electrical sinus rhythm coordinating the heart's contractions.
Common carotid arteries
Arteries which supply the head.
Internal jugular veins
Veins collecting from the head, face and neck.
Superior vena cava
Collects blood from the upper body into the right atrium.
Aortic arch
The loop of the aorta up around the trachea onto the left side of the heart.
Aorta
The first vessel that blood transits through leaving the heart for the body.
Arteries
Thick-walled, high-pressure vessels with both muscular and elastic layers.
Arterioles
The smaller arteries; control blood pressure in the body.
Capillaries
The smallest blood vessels, composed of simple squamous epithelium or endothelium; the site of exchange between blood and cells.
Venules
Small vessels which collect blood from capillaries.
Veins
Thin-walled, valved vessels with no elastic layer; collect blood from venules.
Femoral arteries
Arteries which supply the legs.
Femoral veins
Veins collecting blood from the legs.
Inferior vena cava
Collects blood from the lower body and drains into the right atrium.
Brachial arteries
Arteries supplying the arms.
Pulmonary artery
Artery which carries deoxygenated blood from the heart towards the lungs.
Pulmonary veins
Veins which collect oxygenated blood from the lungs and carry them to the left atrium.
Coronary arteries
Arteries which supply the heart muscle.
Cardiac veins
Veins which collect blood from the heart muscle.
Coronary sinus
Vein which delivers blood from the cardiac veins into the right atrium.
Plasma
Liquid matrix forming just over half of the blood, consisting of water, proteins, and dissolved chemicals like oxygen, carbon dioxide, and electrolytes.
Erythrocytes
Donut-shaped oxygen carrying cells with no nucleus, formed largely of haemoglobin.
Haemoglobin
Oxygen-carrying molecular structure within the erythrocyte, made up of four proteins and four complex ions (bound to iron)
Atrioventricular node
Area of tissue in the inferior interatrial septum which acts to delay ventricular myocardial excitation while the left atrium contracts
Endocardium
The inner lining of the heart; comparable to the endothelium of a blood vessel
Myocardium
The thick, central muscular layer of the heart wall made up of cardiac myocytes
Epicardium
The outer layer of the heart wall, comprising tough fibrocartilage, the coronary arteries and autonomic nervous innervation of the heart
Pericardial cavity
The potential space between the heart and the pericardium
Pericardium
The fibroserous sac which surrounds the heart and prevents excessive dilatation, anchors the heart to the central tendon of the diaghragm. Continuous with the great vessels
Brachiocephalic trunk
The first branch of the arch of aorta (after the coronary artery ostea), supplying the right brain and right upper limb
Common carotid artery
Branch of the brachiocephalic trunk (right) and arch of aorta (left); supplies blood to the anterior brain and face
Subclavian artery
Branch of the brachiocephalic trunk (right) and arch of aorta (left); supplies blood to the upper limb
Internal jugular vein
Large vein receiving blood from the brain and face. Drains to the brachiocephalic vein (left and right)
Brachiocephalic vein
Vein receiving blood from the internal jugular and subclavian veins and draining into the superior vena cava
Tunica intima
The innermost layer of the vascular wall; endothelium with an internal elastic lamina
Tunica media
The most muscular layer of the vascular wall, with elastin predominating in the large arteries proximal to the heart
Tunica adventitia
The external layer of the vascular wall, mostly loose connective tissue (plus vasa vasorum to supply the tissue of larger vessels)