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Level 8

Respiratory system


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Hilum
The 'root' of the lung, through which the main bronchi, pulmonary and bronchial circulations and lymphatic vessels pass
Mediastinal surface
The medial surface of either lung
Costal surface
The lateral, posterior and anterior surface of either lung
Vagus nerve
Nerve responsible for the innervation of the lung
Horizontal fissure
Division between the upper and middle lobe of the right lung
Oblique fissure
Division between the upper and lower lobes of the left lung (and the lower and middle/upper lobes of the right lung)
Trachea
Airway made up of 'C' shaped cartilage rings completed by muscle - extends from the laryngeal cricoid cartilage to to the carina.
Carina
Division of the trachea into the right and left main bronchi, at the level of the transthoracic plane
Main bronchi
Airways coming off the trachea at the carina and entering the lung hila
Lobar bronchi
Airways coming off the main bronchi and entering each respective lung lobe
Segmental bronchi
Airways coming off the lobar bronchi (18 in total)
Mucociliary escalator
System within the respiratory tree which traps and removes inspired material to prevent infection
Diaphragm
The principal muscle of ventilation, active in inspiration
Phrenic nerve
Nerve providing motor innervation of the diaphragm
Visceral pleura
Section of pleural membrane which adheres to the surface of the lung
Parietal pleura
Section of pleural membrane which adheres to the inner surface of the thoracic cavity
Costophrenic recess
Inferior-most part of the pleural cavity, forming an angle around the liver and spleen on either side
Alveoli
Functional microscopic structure of the lung and site of gas exchange
Bronchial artery
Artery which supplies oxygenated blood to the parenchyma (supportive tissue) of the lung
Surfactant
Lipid-protein complex secreted within alveoli by type ii pneumocytes. Prevents hydrogen bonding to prevent alveolar collapse in expiration
External intercostal muscles
Muscles between the ribs, anteroinferiorly oriented and active in inspiration
Internal intercostal muscles
Muscles between the ribs, posteroinferiorly oriented and active in forced exhalation (except anteromedially)
Innermost intercostal muscles
Muscles between the ribs, vertically oriented and active in forced exhalation
Cardiac notch
Region of the medial left lung which is curved to make space for the mediastinum