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Healthy, active lifestyle
A lifestyle that contributes positively to physical, mental and social wellbeing, and that includes regular physical activity
Health
A state of complete mental, physical and social wellbeing, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity
Health-related exercise
Exercise which is undertaken primarily to improve health and fitness for life
Socio-economic status
May be based on a person's income, education and occupation
Exercise
A form of physical activity done to maintain or improve health and/or physical fitness.
Fitness
The ability to meet the demands of the environment
Performance
How well a task is completed
Flexibility
The range of movement possible at a joint
Body composition
The percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle and bone
Cardiovascular fitness
The ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time
Muscular endurance
The ability to use voluntary muscles many times without getting tired
Muscular strength
The amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance
Skill-related fitness
Exercise which may be undertaken primarily to improve sporting ability
Coordination
The ability to use two or more body parts
Agility
The ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of the whole body
Balance
The ability to reatin the body's centre of mass above the base of support with reference to static or dynamic, conditions of movement, shape and orientation.
Power
The ability to do strength performances quickly. Power = strength x speed
Reaction time
The time between the presentation of a stimulus
Speed
The differential rate at which an idividual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time
PAR-Q
Physical activity readiness questionnaire
Cooper's run test
A test of cardiovascular fitness
Specificity
Matching training to the requirement of an activity
Overload
Fitness can only be improved through training more than you normally do
Progressive overload
To gradually increase the amount of overload so that fitness gains occur, but without potential for injury
Recovery
The time required for the repair of damage to the body cauased by training or competition
Rest
The period of time allotted to recovery
FITT
Frequency, intensity, time and type
Reversibility
Any adaption that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training
SMART
Specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, time-bound
Methods of training
Interval training, continuous training, circuit training, weight training, fartlek training, cross training
Cross training
Using more than one training method
Fartlek training
This type of training allows an athlete to run at varying speeds, over unmeasured distances, on different terrain
Circuit training
Aset of 6 to 10 exercises performed at stations in an organised pattern
Resistance training
Training that uses a resistance or force against which specific muscle groups must work
Aerobic
If exercise in not too fast and is steady, the heart can supply all the oxygen muscles need
Anaerobic
If exercise is done in short. Fast bursts, the heart cannot supply blood and oxygen to muscles as fast as the cells use them
Somatotypes
Classification of body type
Ectomorph
Individuals with narrow shoulders and narrow hips, characterised by thinness
Mesomorph
Individuals with wide shoulders and narrow hips, characterised by muscularity
Endomorph
Individuals with wide hips and narow shoulders, characterised by thinness
Obese
A term used to describe people who are very overfat
Optimum weight
Best weight or desirable weight
Underweight
Weighing less than is normal, healthy or required
Anorexic
A long prolong eating disorder due to loss of appetite
Overfat
A way of saying you have more body fat than you should have
Overweight
Having weight in excess of normal
Beta blockers
Drugs that are used to control heart rate and that have a calming and relaxing effect
Erythropoientin
A type of peptide hormone that increases the red blood cell count
Diuretics
Drugs that ekevate the rate of bodily
Anabolic steroids
Drugs that mimic the male sex hormone testosterone and promote bone and muscle growth
Narcotic analgesics
Drugs that can be used to reduce the feeling of pain
Peptide hormones
Drugs that cause the production of other hormones
Stimulants
Drug that have an effect on the central nervous system, such as increased mental and/or physical alertness
Heart rate
The number of times the heart beats each minute
Blood pressure
Blood pressure is the force exerted by the heart as it pumps blood out of the heart and into the arties and it is low when it relaxes between beats
Cardiac output
The amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute
Stroke volume
The volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction
Oxygen debt
The amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would have ordinarily been consumed in the same time at rest
Isometric contraction
Muscle Contraction which results in increased tension but the length does not alter, for example, when pressing against a stationary object
Isotonic contraction
Muscle contraction that results in limb movement
Aesthetic appreciation
To be able to see the beauty in a performance
Balanced diet
A diet which contains an optimal ratio of nutrients.
Cholestrol
Cholesterol is a blood fat which the body needs in moderate amounts
Competence
The relationship between: skill, the selection and application of skills, tactics, strategies and compostional ideas; and the readiness of the body and mind to cope with the activity
Hypokinetic disease
A disease related to too little activity
Hypertrophy
Scientific term for an increase in the size of muscle
Individual differences
Matching training to the requirements of an individual
Joint
A place where two or more bones meet
Ligaments
A tissue that joins bone to bone
Tendons
A tissue that joins muscles to bone
Muscle groups
Muscles may be arranged in groups according to location or function
PEP
Personal exercise programme
PESSCL
PE and school sport club links
Physical activity
Any form of exercise or movement
Rehabilitation
Restoring to its normal functioning state
RICE
Rest, ice, compression, elevation
Role models
A person you can aspire to, to make you into a better person. Often have qualities that we would like to have
Self-esteem
Respect for, or a favourable opinion of, oneself
Target zone
The range within which an individual needs to work for aerobic training to take place. 60-80%
Training
A well-planned programme which uses scientific principles to improve performance
Training thresholds
The boundaries of the target zone