Level 16 Level 18
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the subject of the verb is identified (I broke the window)
the subject of the verb is not identified (the window got broken) - although this can be added later, using "by" (the window got broken by my ex-mate)
the direct object of the verb is required (she threw the brick - compare with "*she threw")
the direct object and the indirect object are required (I put the gun to his head - compare with "*I put the gun" and "*I put to his head")
the verb cannot have a direct object (we giggled - compare "*we giggled it") Note that most verbs can be used transitively or intransitively.
verb used intransitively
the direct object of the verb is not identified (I was smoking)
verb used transitively
the direct object of the verb is identified (I was smoking weed)