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the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
a mental image or best example of a category
a methodical, logical procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
a thinking strategy to efficiently make judgments and solve problems; shortcut through algorithms
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; contrasts with strategy-based solutions
Confirmation Bias
a tendency to search only for evidence that affirms one's preconceptions
Mental Set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
Functional Fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual usages
Representativeness Heuristic
judging the likelihood of things by how well they match particular prototypes
Availability Heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on the ease of retrieving them from memory
the tendency to be more confident than correct
the way an issue is posed; can significantly affect decisions and judgments
Belief Bias
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid
Belief Perseverance
clinging to one's initial conception after its basis has been discredited