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The science and art of reasoning well.
law of non-contradiction
A statement cannot be both true and false.
law of excluded middle
Any statement is either true or false
law of identity
If a statement is true then it is true.
Deals with the proper modes of reasoning.
Deals with operations of thinking that are indirectly related to reasoning.
Reasoning with probability from examples or experience to general rules.
A concept that can be expressed precisely.
A statement that gives the meaning of a term.
A word that has more than one definition.
genus of a term
A term that is more general, broad, or abstract than the original term and includes it.
species of a term
A term that is more specific, narrow, or concrete than the original term and is included by it.
Reasoning with certainty from premises to conclusions.
A word whose extent is unclear.
A definition which shows relationships or reduces ambiguity by providing a single, established meaning of a term.
A definition that seeks to make more precise what was previously vague or fuzzy.
A definition given when a new word is invented, or when an existing word is applied in a new way.
A definition that is often scientific or philosophical in nature.
A definition that aims at persuading the listener one way or another toward the term being defined.
The sum of all the individual objects described by it.
The sum of all the common attributes denoted by the term.
6 purposes for definitions
Show relationships; remove ambiguity; reduce vagueness; increase vocabulary; explain concepts theoretically; influence attitudes
5 types of definitions
lexical; precising; stipulative; theoretical; persuasive
3 errors to avoid in genus-species charts
overlapping species; using ambiguous terms; confusing genus/species with part/whole
3 methods to define terms
by synonym; by example; by genus & difference
6 rules for good genus-difference definitions
Should state the essential attributes of the term; should not be circular; should not be too broad/narrow; should not be unclear; should be stated positively; should be of the same part of speech as the term