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Level 2

Unit 2


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statement
A sentence which is either true or false.
self-supporting statement
A statement whose truth value can be determined from the statement itself.
tautology
A statement which is always true because of its logical structure.
self-contradiction
A statement that is false due to its logical structure.
supported statement
A statement whose truth value depends on evidence or information from outside itself.
consistent
Two statements are _____ (adj.) if they can both be true at the same time.
inconsistent
Two statements are _____ (adj.) if there is a conflict between them such that it is not possible for both statements to be true.
implication
Two statements are related by _____ (n.) if the truth of one requires the truth of the other.
logically equivalent
Two statements are _____ if they imply one another.
independent
Two statements are _____ (adj.) if the truth or falsity of one has no effect on the truth or falsity of the other.
real disagreement
An actual inconsistency between two statements: they cannot both be true at the same time.
apparent disagreement
A difference of opinion or perception.
verbal disagreement
A misunderstanding due to differing definitions for one or more words.
subject of a statement
The term being described, or about which something is asserted.
predicate of a statement
The term that describes or asserts something about the subject.
quantity
The scope of a statement's claim about the extension of the subject (universal, particular).
quality
The positive or negative nature of a statement's claim about the subject (affirmative, negative).
A statement
All S are P.
E statement
No S are P.
I statement
Some S are P.
O statement
Some S are not P.
square of opposition
A diagram of the basic relationships between statements with the same subject and predicate.
contradiction
Two statements are in _____ (n.) if and only if they always have opposite truth values (A-O, E-I).
contrariety
Two statements are related by _____ (n.) if and only if they can both be false but cannot both be true.
subcontrariety
Two statements are related by _____ (n.) if and only if both can be true but both cannot be false.
subimplication
The relationship between a universal and particular statement of the same quality, in which the truth of the universal necessitates the truth of the particular.
superimplication
The relationship between a universal and particular statement of the same quality, in which the falsity of the particular necessitates the falsity of the universal.