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Level 3

Unit 3


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argument
A set of statements, one of which appears to be implied or supported by the others.
premises
Those statements which support or imply the conclusion.
words which indicate premises
since, because, for, given that
conclusion
The statement which appears to be implied by the other statements in the argument.
words which indicate conclusion
therefore, thus, so
categorical syllogism
A deductive argument consisting of three statements in categorical format that together use only three terms, called the major, minor, and middle.
major term
The predicate of the conclusion; used in one premise.
minor term
The subject of the conclusion; used in the other premise
middle term
A term found once in each premise.
major premise
The premise containing the major term.
minor premise
The premise containing the minor term.
schema
A representation of a syllogism, having statements in standard order with standard abbreviations of its terms.
mood
A three-letter description of the types of categorical statements contained in a syllogism when arranged in standard order.
figure
A number from 1 to 4 identifying the placement of the middle term in a syllogism.
form
The mood listed with the figure (e.g., EIO-1)
valid
A syllogism is _____ (adj.) if and only if the conclusion is necessarily true given that the premises are true, and depends only on the form of the argument.
sound syllogism
A syllogism that is valid and have true premises.
counterexample
A syllogism of the same form as the original, but with obviously true premises and a false conclusion, in order to show the original syllogism to be invalid.
distributed term
A term that, within a statement, refers to all members of its class.
fallacy of the undistributed middle
In at least one premise, the middle term must be distributed.
fallacy of an illicit major/,inor
If a term is distributed in the conclusion, it must also be distributed in its premise.
fallacy of two negative premises
A valid syllogism cannot have two negative premises.
fallacy of a negative premise and an affirmative conclusion
A valid syllogism cannot have a negative premise and an affirmative conclusion.
fallacy of two affirmative premises and a negative conclusion
A valid syllogism cannot have two affirmative premises and a negative conclusion.