Level 4
Level 5

Unit 5


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informal fallacy
A popular but invalid (or unhelpful) form of argument.
fallacy of distraction
An argument that confuses the issue by pointing to information that is actually irrelevant to the conlusion.
ipse dixit
An illegitimate appeal to authority.
ad populum
An illegitimate appeal to a majority.
ad baculum
An illegitimate appeal to force.
ad hominem
A verbal attack on a person rather than his argument.
bulverism
Attacking a position by pointing out how the arguer came to hold it.
tu quoque
_____ points to an inconsistency between a person's argument and behavior.
ad ignorantium
An argument from lack of evidence.
chronological snobbery
An argument based merely on the passage of time.
fallacy of ambiguity
An argument that confuses the real issue with multiple, vague, or otherwise unclear meanings.
equivocation
Changing the definition of a term in the middle of an argument.
accent
The fallacy of ____ alters the meaning of a statement through changed emphasis.
amphiboly
A vagueness of grammar that disguises or alters meaning.
composition
The fallacy of transferring attributes from parts to whole.
division
The fallacy of transferring attributes from whole to part.
fallacy of form
An argument that fails to establish its conclusions because of a weakness in logical structure.
circular reasoning
Secretly assuming what you are trying to prove.
post hoc ergo propter hoc
Improperly assuming that a sequence in time implies a cause and effect.
bifurcation (either/or)
Making an argument based on a false dilemma.
complex question
A question crafted to exclude any possible legitimate response.
apriorism
A hasty generalization.