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Agenda Setting Theory
Media does not tell us what to think, but what to think about.
Uses and Gratification Approach
Audience uses media to satisfy needs (i.e., Diversion, Catharsis...).
Hypodermic Needle Theory/Bullet Theory
Media influences us with no filters.
Social Learning Theory
We learn how to behave by viewing media.
Two Step Flow Theory
Media passes through an opinion leader before reaching its target.
Goal of Theory
Explanatory and predictive power
Media Hegemony
Media influence is so pervasive everyone will be mainstreamed.
Each time it is tested the results are the same.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Rationalizing when beliefs, attitudes or values do not correspond with actions. (e.g., explaining why you are watching low brow reality TV, but always claimed it's garbage)
Selective Processes
Audience chooses how they will experience media (see no evil, speak no evil, hear no evil...)
Selective Perception
Judging media from a frame of reference (John Stewart vs. Bill O'Reilly)
Selective Exposure
Choosing what media you will experience
Selective Retention
Picking what aspects of media you will retain and ignoring the rest
Cultivation Analysis (Mean World Theory)
Watching TV news makes viewer believe the world is more dangerous than it is.
Knowledge Gap Hypothesis
Elites have greater access to (quality) information and resources (e.g., high speed internet), which allows user to make better decisions
Social Priming Theory
Media prompts a person to behave in a certain manner (e.g., boy watches wrestling and afterward pile drives best friend)
Spiral of Silence
Media environment feels hostile/People afraid to go against perceived, public consensus (Wars, persecution of certain groups,etc.)
Limited Effects Model
Media influence is affected by people's personal background (i.e., education, politics, religion, etc.).
Malcolm Gladwell
"People are experience rich, but theory poor..."
The idea that mass media can normalize certain viewpoints and draw outliers in ideology toward the norm.
Media Gatekeeper
Determines the worthiness of news (and other media) and decides who gets access.