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agricultural density
the ratio of number of farmers to the total amount of arable land
arithmetic density
total number of people divided by total land area
physiological density
number of people per unit of area of arable land
complete counting/enumeration of a population
crude birth rate (CBR)
total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
crude death rate (CDR)
total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
age distribution
model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population
demographic transition
process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and higher total population
scientific study of population characterisics
dependency ratio
number of people under age 15 and over age 64 coimpared to the number of people active in the labor force
doubling time
number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
portion of earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
epidemiologic transition
distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality
Industrial Revolution
series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
infant mortality rate (IMR)
total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year of age for every 1,000 live births in a society
life expectancy
average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions
medical revolution
medical technology invented in Europe and North America that has diffused to the poorer countries in Latin America, Asia, and Africa
natural increase rate (NIR)
percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate (CBR-CDR); difference between CBR and CDR
situation in which the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
population pyramid
bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex
sex ratio
number of males per 100 females in the population
total fertility rate (TFR)
average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
zero population growth (ZPG)
decline of the total fertility rate to the point where natural increase rate is zero
framework put in place by governments to ensure it meets the needs of its citizens
education of women
brings opportunity to women to choose what to do with their lives and when (if at all) to have children
health care
access to improvements in medical technology
birth dearth
final stage of the demographic transition where the crude death rate exceeds the crude birth rate
British economist that concluded that the rate of population was growing at a faster rate than agricultural productivity leading to overpopulation.
Geographer who developed the theory that subsistence farmers want the most leisure time they can have, so they farm in ways that will allow them both to feed their families and to maximize free time. Boserup's theory also posited that farmers will change their approach to farming if the population increases and more food is needed, thus making the food supply dependent on human innovation, rather than humans dependent on the food supply.
neo-Malthusian theory
recent theorists who warn that a Malthusian catastrophe could occur, make 3 points: 1) sustainability - there may be problems keeping up with the demand caused by a population of 11 billion people, 2) increasing per capita demand: the amount of food consumed per person is rising; 3) natural resource depletion- over-consumption of resources other than food
carrying capacity
how many people an area can support on a sustained basis
population group distinguished by certain characteristic (i.e. age range)
demographic equation
global births minus global deaths, determines population growth rate for the world
dependency ratio
those aged 0-14 and over 65 depend on the workforce for support
disease diffusion
how disease spreads in a population
female infanticide
intentional killing of baby girls due to the preference for male babies and from the low value associated with the birth of females
crude birth rate (CBR)
crude death rate (CDR)
population momentum
even though the fertility rates may be decreasing, the population rate can still be increasing
replacement level
2.1 children born per woman, necessary to sustain population growth
natalist policy
government policy that promotes human reproduction
population explosion
rapid growth of the world's population during the 20th century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating natural increase rates
restrictive population policy
government-made policies that restrict having a certain number of offspring by law, such as China's one-child policy, which serves to decrease the natural increase rate
population distribution
how a group of people in an area are spread out across it
Countries with higher levels of per capita income, industrialization and modernization. Economies based on services. Usually have lower levels of population growth due to the fact that they have fewer children, includes Western EUrope, Canada, the U.S., Australia, Japan, New Zealand
newly industrialized country (Mexico, Brazil, India, Russia, China), economy based on manufacturing
A country with low levels of average wealth, industrialization and modernization, often high levels of population growth which limits their ability to provide food, shelter, and clothing to their people. Significant percentage of people employed in agriculture. Examples include many Sub-Saharan African countries, Middle Eastern countries, and Southeast Asian countries.
chart that places countries on a scale based on their openness and stability. The movement of countries on this scale depends largely on their economic progress
horizontal bending, or leveling, of an exponential or J-curve
arithmetic growth
expansion that increases by the same amount during each time interval
geometric growth
growth pattern where individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
activity space
space where daily activity occurs
awareness space
knowledge of opportunity locations beyond normal activity space
moving livestock from one grazing ground to another in a seasonal cycle
subsistence farming
self-sufficiency farming in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their families
regularly found among particular people or in a certain area; native to a place
extreme scarcity of food
a fatal epidemic disease, especially bubonic plague
chronic disease
ong-lasting condition that can be controlled but not cured
degenerative disease
disease that affects many of your body's activities, like balance, movement, talking, breathing and heart function
pull factor
positive conditions and perceptions that induce people to new locations from other areas
push factor
negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location
all types of movement from one location to another
form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location
migration to a new location
migration from a location; out-migration
net migration
difference between the number of emigrants and the number of immigrants
asylum seeker
someone who has migrated to another country in the hope of being recognized as a refugee
person forced to migrate from his/her home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion
internally displaced person (IDP)
someone who has been forced to migrate for similar political reasons as a refuge but has not migrated across an international border
forced migration
permament movement, usually compelled by cultural factors
voluntary migration
permanent movement undertaken by choice
guest worker
worker who migrated to developed countries to work with a work visa, usually short term
unauthorized immigrant
person who enters a country without proper documents to do so, person who arrives with permission but remains in country after it expires
brain drain
large-scale emigration by talented or educated people
chain migration
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
money that migrants send back to their friends and family in their home countries
place utility
person's satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a place
area subject to flooding during a given number of years, according to historical trends
internal migration
permanent movement within a particular country
international migration
permanent movement from one country to another
interregional migration
permanent movement from one region of a country to another
short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis
intervening obstacle
physical features that halt/slow migration from one place to another
net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
intervening opportunity
many people who intend to move far away find good opportunities to settle before reaching their intended destination
critical distance
distance beyond which cost, effort, and means strongly influence willingness to travel; eventually prevents migration from occurring
gravity model
spatial interaction, including migration, is directly related to the size of populations and inversely related to the distance between them; a large city has a greater gravitational pull than a small city, but it still tends to pull people that live closer rather than far away.
human capital theory of migration
educated workers often migrate from poor countries to wealthy countries seeking better-paying jobs
step migration
migration that follows a path of a series of stages or steps towards a final destination
UN agency that monitors movement and treatment of displaced people
Ravenstein's Laws of Migration
1. Most migrants only go a short distance. 2. Most migrations proceed step-by-step. 3. If migrants do travel a long distance, they are more likely to move to a big city. 4. Every migration flow produces a counterflow. 5. Most migration is from rural to urban areas. 6. Young adults are more likely to move internationally than families. 7. Most international migrants are young males.