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complex mix of values, beliefs, behaviors, and material objects that together form a people's way of life; what people care about and what they take care of
material culture
type of culture that includes artifacts, which reflect values, beliefs, and behaviors; what people take care of
concrete human creations
non-material culture
abstract concepts of values, beliefs, and behaviors; what people care about
actions that people take
specific statements that people hold to be true
the dominant culture completely absorbs the less dominant one; may take place over the course of several generations
process in which a less dominant culture adopts some of the traits of a more influential culture; usually takes place when immigrants take on the values, attidues, customs, and language of their new country
two-way flows of culture that reflect a more equal exchange of cultural traits
cultural determinism
human culture is ultimately more important than physical environment in shaping human activities
cultural diffusion
the process through which cultural hearths' material and non-material culture spreads to areas around them
cultural ecology
field that studies the relationship between the natural environment and culture
cultural geography
the subfield of human geography that looks at how cultures vary over space
cultural hearth
area where civilizations first began that radiated the customs, innovations, and ideologies thta culturally transformed the world
cultural landscape
the modification of the natural landscape by human activities
cultural relativism
the practice of evaluating a culture by its own standardsl putting aside one's own cultural preferences and considering another culture based on its people's needs and values
cultural transmission
the process by which one generation passes culture to the next
culture complex
common values, beliefs, behaviors, and artifacts that make a group in an area distinct from others
culture region
an area marked by culture that distinguishes it from other regions
culture system
a group of interconnected culture complexes
culture trait
single attribute of culture
Most prevalent in Africa and the Americas, doctrine in which the world is seen as being infused with spiritual and even supernatural powers
Universalizing religion founded in Iran in 1844, most followers live in Iran where they are viewed by some Shiite Muslims as hertics to the faith since they believe that Husayn Ali Nuri was the prophet and messenger of God, not Muhammad.
the ability to communicate in two languages
World's 3rd major universalizing religion, which began on the Indian subcontinent. System of belief that seeks to explain ultimate realities for all people -- such as the nature of suffering and the path toward self-realization. Eastern religions like Buddhism do not require their followers to identify with only one religion.
ethnic religion and system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
language that develops when a pidgin becomes the first language of a group of speakers who may have lost their former native tongue through disuse
ethnic religion that states that human happiness lies in maintaining proper harmony with nature, found in China and influential in Korea and Japan
a regional variety of language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
forced exodus from lands of origin that leads to widespread dispersal through the world
environmental determinism
the physical eivnronment, especially the climate and terrain, actively shapes cultures; human responses are almost completely molded by the environment
ethnic religion
a religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated; religion that appeals primarily to a group of people living in one place
the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
folk culture
culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
extinct language
language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used
folk life
the composite culture, both material and non-material, that shapes the lives of folk societies
folk culture region
an area in which the population has the same folk customs
geographic region
formation of an entire culture system that intertwines with its locational and environmental circumstances
a cohesive and unique society, most prevalent in India that integrates spiritual beliefs with daily practices and official institutions such as the caste system
ideology that emphasizes the ability of human beings to guide their own lives
independent interventions
developments that can be traced to a specific civilization
Indo-European language family
most commonly cited language family; most languages in this family are spoken by about half the world's people, with English as the most widely used (also includes Spanish, Hindi, Protuguese, Bengali, Russian, German, Marathi, French, Italian, Punjabi, and Urdu)
second largest world religion, with about 1.6 billion followers, predoiminant religion of the Middle East from North Africa to Central Asia, but about half of the world's Muslims live in four countries outside the Middle East: Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India; A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one god, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah's prophet. Based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia
a boundary that separates regions in which different language uses predominate; boundaries within which particular words are used
he monotheisti ethnic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
a system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning; systematic means of communicating ideas and feelings through the use of signs, gestures, marks, or vocal sounds
language family
a collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history; languages with share but fairly distant origin
language sub-family
ex. Romance languages as a sub-family of Indo-European languages, languages with origins in Latin, including Spanish, French, and Italian
lingua franca
a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages; an established language that comes to be spoken and understood over a large area
linguistic fragmentation
a condition in which many languages are spoken, each by a relatively small number of people, which may result in an area where many major languages have diffused or where people have existed in relative isolation from others
linguistic geography
the study of speech areas and their local variations by mapping word choices, pronuncations, or grammatical constructions
one of the two largest branches of Buddhism, practiced primarily in East and Southeast Asia. Generally, it has more mystical and spiritual elements than Theravada Buddhism
ideology which transformed communism into a central ideology in many areas during the 20th century
migrant diffusion
type of relocation diffusion where the spread of cultural traits is slow enough that they weaken in the area of origin by the time they reach other lands
the ability to communicate in more than two languages
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
official language
the language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents; language endorsed and recognized by the government as the one that everyone should know and use, countries may designate more than one
hybrid language that borrows words from several languages and serves as a second language for everyone who uses it; a form of speech that adopts a simiplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca; used for communications among speakers of two different languages
popular culture
culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
One of the three major branches of Christianity (together with the Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church). Following the widespread societal changes in Europe starting in the 1300s CD, many adherents to the Roman Catholic Church began to question the role of religion in their lives and opened the door to the Protestant Reformation wherein John Huss, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and others challenged many of the fundamental teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.
regional identity
an awareness of being a part of a group of people living in a culture region
relocation diffusion
individuals or populations migrating from a source area physically carry the innovation or idea to new areas
Roman Catholic
about 50% of the world's Christians are Roman Catholic, with high concentration in Latin America, French Canada, Central Africa, and Southern and Eastern Europe
geographer who wrote on the process of diffusion through the movement of people, goods, and ideas
an animistic religion of northern Asia having the belief that the mediation between the visible and the spirit worlds is effected by shamans
comprise nearly 16% of all Muslims, and most are located in only a few countries of the Middle East. Nearly 40% of all Shiites live in Iran, 15% are in Pakistan, 10% in Iraq, and 10% in Turkey, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, and Yemen
About 21 million Sikhs live in the Punjab region of India, with about 3 milloin living elsewhere. Universalizing religion that emphasizes continual impovement and movement toward perfection by taking idvidual responsbility for their actions, combines beliefs from Hinduism and Islam
standard language
the form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications; recognized by government and intellectual elite as the norm for use in schools, government, media, and other aspects of public life
comprise 83% of all Muslims, largest branch in the Middle East and Asia. Although many live in the Middle East, the country with the largest concentration of Sunni Muslims is Indonesia
symbolic landscape
symbols on a landscape that represent the culture there
anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture
traditions that borrow from both the past and present; process of the fusion of old and new; major explanation for how and why cultural changes occur (languages, religion)
About 6% of Buddhists, place emphasis on magic as well as different meditation techniques and found primarily in Tibet and Mongolia
About 38% of Buddhists are Theraveda, characterized by a stricter adherence to the original teachings of the Buddha, branch strong in Southeast Asia
time-distance decay
the influence of cultural traits weakens as time and distance decrease
the study of place names
universalizing religion
religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location; religion that attemps to be global in its appeal to all people, wherever they may live in the world; religion that actively seeks converts to their broad views and beliefs
the frequent repretition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act
a repetitive act performed by a particular individual
a restriction on behavior imposed by social custom
the contribution of a location's distinctive physical features to the way food tastes
language group
a collection of languages within a branch that share common origins in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
literary transition
a language that is written as well as spoken
a symbol that represents a word rather than a sound
belief in the existence of only one god
belief in or worship of more than one god
a division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations into a single legal and administrative body
the class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned, according to religious law
literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a region, religious branch, denomination, or sect
laws in South Africa (no longer in effect) that physically separated different races into different geographic areas
a process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that persons of color will soon move into the neighborhood
centripetal force
attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
ethnic clensing
a process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions; emphasizes a shared cultural heritage, like language, religion, and customs, not race
the mass killing of a group of people in an attempt to eliminate the entire group from existence
loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality
identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there
identity with a group of people descended from a biological ancestor; people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race
a person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops
triangular slave trade
a practice, primarily during the 18th century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa
journey to a place considered sacred for religious reasons
relatively small groups that do not affiliate with the more mainstream denominations
Sino-Tibetan Family
Language area that spreads through most of Southeast Asia and China and is compromised of Chinese, Burmese, Tibetan, Japanese, and Korean
Romance Languages
Any of the languages derived from Latin including Italian, Spanish, French, and Romanian