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language family
a collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
language branch
a collection of languages related through a common ancestor several thousand years ago
language group
a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past
Standard language
the form of language used for official government business, education, and mass communication
Isogloss
a boundary that separates regions in which different languages are used
Logogram
a symbol that represents a word rather than a sound
Dialect
a regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
lingua franca
a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
Creole
a language that results from mixing a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
Pidgin
a form of speech that uses simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca; used for communication between speakers of different languages
official language
language adopted by law as the language of communication for a country
Indo European
largest language family includes languages of Europe, Iran, and northern India
Romance Language
branch of Indo European that includes French, Spanish, Portugues, Catalan