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Level 3

Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

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Heart Rate
The number of times the heart beats per minute
Blood Pressure
The force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels
Cardiac Output
The amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute. Heart Rate x Stroke Volume
Oxygen Debt
The amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would have ordinarily been consumed in the same time at rest (this results in a shortfall in the oxygen available)
Stroke Volume
The volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction
Breathing in
Breathing out
Tidal Volume
Amount of air breathed in or out of the lungs in one breath
Vital Capacity
The maximum amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after breathing in
Cardiac Hypertrophy
The heart muscle increasing in size as a result of long term exercise
Gaseous Exchange
Oxygen passes out of the air into the blood, and carbon dioxide passes out of the blood into the air in the alveol
Creation of energy with oxygen. Glucose + oxygen → energy + water + carbon dioxide
Creation of energy without oxygen. Glucose → energy + lactic acid