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Level 4

Muscular System


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Cardiac Muscle
Unique to the heart, beats involuntarily and it never tires.
Voluntary or Skeletal Muscle
Muscles make the body move. They are attached to the skeleton and can be controlled
Involuntary or Smooth Muscle
These work our internal organs. They are outside our control
Isometric Contractions
Muscle contraction which results in increased tension but the length does not alter, for example, when pressing against a stationary object
Isotonic Contractions
Muscle contraction that results in limb movement
Triceps
Extend arm at the elbow. E.g. A press up or throwing a javelin
Biceps
Flex the arm at the elbow. E.g. A pull up or a bicep curl
Deltoids
Move the arm in all directions at the shoulder. E.g. Bowling a cricket ball
Pectorals
Adduct the arm at the shoulder. E.g. Forehand drive in tennis
Trapezius
Hold the shoulders in place, move head back and sideways. E.g. Holding your head up in a rugby scrum
Gluteals
Adduct and extend leg at the hips. E.g. Pulling leg back to kick a ball in football
Quadriceps
Extend the leg at the knee. E.g. Kicking a ball upwards
Hamstrings
Flex the leg at the knee. E.g. Bending knee to kick a ball
Gastrocnemius
Pointing the toes, help to flex the knee. E.g. Running
Latissimus Dorsi
Adduct and extend the arm at the shoulder. E.g. Butterfly stroke in swimming
Abdominals
Flex the trunk across the stomach. E.g. Pulling the body down when hurdling
Concentric Contraction
Where the muscle shortens as the fibres contract
Eccentric Contraction
Where the fibres contract as the muscle lengthens
Antagonistic Pairs
Pairs of muscles create movement when one contracts (prime mover) and one relaxes (antagonist). E.g. Biceps and Triceps
Hypertrophy
Muscles increase in size
Atrophy
Muscles reduce in size due to lack of exercise
Muscle Tone
is the readiness of a muscle to work. Muscles are always in a prepared state and never truly rest