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Level 3

Acids


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Oxidising
Provides oxygen
Harmful
like toxic but not as dangerous
Toxic
can cause death either by swallowing or breathing in
Highly Flammable
catches fire easily
Corrosive
attacks and destroys living tissues
Irritant
not corrosive but can cause reddening or blistering of the skin
Acid
pH less than 7
Base
pH more than 7
Alkali
a base that dissolves in water
Neutral
pH 7
Neutralisation reaction
acid + base > salt +water
Hydrochloric Acid
produced in the stomach to help with digestion and kill bacteria
Indigestion
caused by too much hydrochloric acid in the stomach
Indigestion remedies
contain bases such as calcium carbonate which neutralise the excess acid
Acid + metal oxide/ metal hydroxide
> salt + water
Hydrochloric Acid + copper oxide
> copper chloride + water
Sulfuric acid + zinc oxide
> zinc sulfate + water
Nitric acid + magnesium oxide
> magnesium nitrate + water
Acid + metal carbonate
> salt + water + carbon dioxide
Electrolysis
the breaking down of a compound using electrical energy that comes from a d.c. source such as a battery
Test for chlorine
bleaches damp litmus paper, turning it white
Test for hydrogen
makes a "squeaky pop" with a lighted splint
Test for oxygen
the gas relights a glowing splint
Test for carbon dioxide
turns limewater cloudy
Electrolysis of water
gives hydrogen and oxygen
Electrolysis of salt
gives chlorine
Chlorine uses
treat water supplies, making bleach and PVC