24 words 0 ignored
Ready to learn Ready to review
Check the boxes below to ignore/unignore words, then click save at the bottom. Ignored words will never appear in any learning session.
Attachment can be outlined by general behaviour; separation anxiety, joy at reunion and seeking of primary caregiver's attention.
Schaffer & Emerson 1964
Attachment is not just about cupboard love but 'sensitive responsiveness' - the accurate response to the infant's needs.
Monkeys chose to go to uncomfortable mother to get food, then became attached to the comfortable mother without food.
5 key parts to attachment: social releasers, monotropy, secure base, innate process and critical/sensitive period.
Research with geese showed them to have imprinted researcher as their primary caregiver, following them everywhere they went.
Proposed the temperament hypothesis. Regardless of how they're treated, a child can have differing characteristics innately - their temperament.
Developed the 'strange situation' to test the quality of attachment between infant and primary caregiver. Concluded on 'secure' attachments, 'anxious-resistant' attachments and 'anxious-avoidant' ones.
Hazan & Shaver 1987
Developed the 'love quiz' to test the continuity hypothesis - that type of attachment during childhood affects future relationships. They largely did! Repeated study in 1993 with same results.
Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg 1988
Meta-analysis of 32 strange situation studies from eight different countries. Majority very similar, but some cultural variation, e.g: less secure attachments in Germany. Criticised largely for imposed etics.
Strange situation research is socially sensitive - Aboriginal children are over-represented in children put into care because it is a biased measurement.
Studied 42 Dogon infants and mothers, concluding that naturally parented children are more likely to develop secure attachments due to majority of time being spent with parent.
Compared Korean and American children in the 'strange situation'. Despite different child-rearing practices (e.g: Korean mother more likely to play with child), secure attachments still dominated in both groups.
Robertson, Robertson & Bowlby 1952
Developed the PDD (protest, despair, detachment) model for the effects of short-term, physical separation (deprivation). However, adequately good-quality substitute care can prevent such a negative effect.
Bowlby 1944 (maternal deprivation)
44 juvenile thieves study: 44 young people who'd stolen referred to psychologist's clinic. 16 of them were 'affectionless psychopaths' (lacking in remorse/guilt). Majority of that 16 had been separated from their mother for at least 6 months before they were five years old.
Studied Genie as a case of privation of attachment. Discovered at the age of 13, Genie could not talk or stand up straight, having been strapped to a potty and left without any interaction. After many years of rehabilitation, her IQ almost doubled - but remained below average.
Studied the Czech twins, discovered at the age of seven, having been physically abused and locked in a cellar. They were adopted by two nurturing sisters. By age 14, they were functioning near normal. They went on to have successful careers and relationships.
Hodges & Tizard 1989
Longitudinal study of children in an American children's home (institution) - those who were adopted, those restored to biological parents, those who stayed at institution and a control group of 'normal' kids. Adopted children formed as strong attachments as control group, but still had trouble at school. Most troublesome and attention-seeking were those who stayed at the home.
Rutter et al 2007
111 Romanian orphans were adopted by British families, when they were younger than 6 months, between 6 months and 2 years or over 2 years old. Those adopted earlier in life more likely to make a fuller recovery from the effects of institutionalisation.
Observed children during their first 10 weeks at nursery. Aggression and distance from teachers and other children both decreased. The effect was particularly pronounced in those attending the daycare more days per week than others, suggesting it was this and not other factors which affected peer relations.
Di Lalla 1998
62 pairs of same-sex children played for 20 minutes in a laboratory play room. Observed for aggressiveness and prosocial behaviour. Children who had not been in daycare very much had higher pro-sociability and less aggressiveness, although it is important to note temperament and gender can affect behaviour (with boys being both more prosocial and more aggressive).
The Effective Provision of Pre-School Education Project (EPPE, 2003)
Over 3000 children in different types of daycare across the UK were monitored from ages 3-7 using tests, staff reports, observation and assessments of home background. Antisocial behaviour slightly increased in children who spent over 20 hours a week in daycare (sharply increased for those spending 40+ hours a week). Good quality daycare, with a consistent carer, can improve independence and sociability, especially for children from disadvantaged backgrounds.
Said good quality daycare included sensitively responsive staff, sufficient space, a good staff-to-child ratio, appropriate activities and a minimised staff turnover.
Good quality daycare structures a plan of activities, gives adequately nutritious meals, trained caregivers, good staff-to-child ratio and the opportunity for parents to discuss their child's needs with staff.
Suggested that Schaffer & Emerson's 'sensitive responsiveness' may be taught to caregivers, nurses or adoptive parents.