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Geography: Its Nature and Perspectives

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the geometric surface of the earth
an area of bounded space of some human importance
place name
place-specific culture
a culture specific to a place
place-specific culture
ex. Sante Fe, New Mexico is a mix of Native American, Spanish colonial, and modern America influences
sequent occupancy
the succession of groups and cultural influences throughout a place's history
map scale
the ratio of distance on a map and distance in the real world in absolute terms
level of aggregation
the level at which you group things for examination
relative scale / scale of analysis
described by level of aggregation
formal region
an area of bounded space that posesses some homogeneous characteristic of uniformity
linguistic region
a region where everyone speaks the same language
cultural regions
have fuzzy borders (it's hard to tell where Dixie ends and the North starts)
political regions
are finite and well-defined borders
environmental region
boundaries are transitional and measurable
the environmental transition zone between two bioregions or biomes
the space between the Sahara desert and the tropical Savannah of Africa
nodal regions
functional regions
functional regions
have a central place or node that expresses some practical purpose
central place
market areas
a type of functional region
intervening opportunity
the existence of a closer, less expensive opportunity for obtaining a good or service, or for a migration destination; Something that comes up unexpectedly that you can use to your advantage
vernacular region
based upon the perception or collective map of the region's residents
can be defined by the location of country music bands or fans; the numbers of Southern Baptist church congregations; NASCAR races; Confederate states
absolute location
defines a point or place on the map using coordinates such as latitude or longitude
relative location
refers to the location of a place compared to a known place or geographic feature
latitude first, then longitude
decimal degrees
when decimals are used to divide partial degrees instead of minutes and seconds
International Date Line
parts of the 180 line of longitude
Royal Naval Observatory
0 degrees longitude was fixed here
times zones are this many degrees
relative location
Ex. In the 1990's, Dublin, Ireland, became an important international business due to its low-cost economy, English language skills, and close relative location to Great Britain, where the cost of business was extremely high
the physical characteristics of a place
Ex. New York is located on a large, deep water harbor, next to the Atlantic Ocean
a place's interrelatedness with other places
Ex. New York City became the most prominent trade and finance center in the US during the 1800's due to its position as a terminal ofr trade goods on the ship-navigable Hudson River to and from the rest of New England. Therefore it had better market potential than Philadelphia, Charleston, or Boston
absolute distance
measured in linear units
relative distance
measured in terms of the degree of interaction between places or in units of time traveled
distance decay
used to explain relative distance
distance decay
the father away different places are from a place of origin the less likely interaction will be with the original place
Tobler's law
all places are interrelated but closer places are more related than farther ones
friction of distance
when length of distance becomes a factor that inhibits interaction between two points
friction of distance
ex. when the combined cost and time of moving a product prevents it from being sold in far-off locations
space-time compression
decreased time and relative distance between places
space-time compression
when modes of transportation such as airplanes reduce travel time between two distance points
central place
a node of human activity, but usually the centers of economic exchange
central place theory
developed by Walter Christaller
core of the urban landscape
the core of a country's political landscape
when things are grouped together on earth's surface
when clustering occurs purposefully around a central points or an economic growth pole
random pattern
when there is no rhyme or reason to the distribution of a spatial phenomenon
a pattern of a straight line
a pattern of waves
land survey patterns
effect property lines and political boundaries of states and provinces
metes and bounds
developed in Europe; used in Ontario and Ohio; used until the 1830's
metes and bounds
used natural landscape features to divide land
new techniques to accurately determine longitude were transferred from sea navigation to land survey
township and range
used after the 1830's; rectilinear survey system based on lines of latitude and longitude
long-lot patterns
have narrow frontage along a road or waterway with a very long lot shape behind; typical of former french colonial areas such as Louisiana or Quebec
arithmetic density
the number of things per square unit of distance
agricultural density
the number of people per square unit of land actively under cultivation
physiologic density
the number of people per square unit of arable land
point of origin or point of innovation
expansion diffusion
pattern that originates in a central point and then expands outward in all directions
hierarchical diffusion
pattern that originates in a first-order location and then moves down into second-order locations and from each of these to subordinate locations at increasingly local scales
relocation diffusion
patter that begins at a point of origin and then crosses a significant physical barrier, such as an ocean, mountain range, or desert, and then relocates on the other side. Often the journey can influe
contagious diffusion
pattern that begins at a point of origin and mvoes outward to nearby locations, especially those on adjoining transportation lines. Can be used to describe a disease, or the spread of news in rural reg
stimulus diffusion
an idea is diffused or transmitted from one culture to another. This idea then is improved upon or has stimulated another idea or invention
topographic map
shows the contour lines of elevation as well as the urban and vegatation surface with road, building, river, and other natural landscape features; are highly accurate in terms of location and topograp
chloropleth map
express the geographic variety of a particular theme using color variations
isoline map
calculate data values between points across a variable surface (most commonly are weather maps show temperature contours)
dot density map
use dots to express the volume and density of a particular geographic feature
flow line map
use lines of varying thickness to show the directino and volume of a particular geographic movement pattern
use simplified geometries to represent real-world places; are more about data than about landscapes
mental map
the cognitive image of landscape in the human mind
large scale
small area
small area
large scale
large scale
label: 1:50,000
small scale
label: 1:1,000,000
large scale
high detail
small scale
low detail
equal area projections
attempt to maintain the relative spatial science and areas on the map, but can distort the actual shapes of polygons
Lampert Projection
type of equal area projection that squishes the northern Canadian islands to keep them at the same map scale as southern Canada
conformal projections
attempt to maintain the shape polygons on the map; can distort the relative area from one part of the map to another
Mercator Projection
type of conformal projection, where the shape of Greenland is preserved but appears to be much larger than South America
Robinson Projection / Goode's homolosine projection
map projection that tries to balance area and form, sacrificing a bit of both to create a more visually practical representation of the earth's surface
an abstract generalizaton of real-world geographies that share a common pattern
spatial models
try to show the commonalities in pattern among similar landscapes
urban models
try to show how different cities have similar spatial relationships and economic and social structure
gravity model
used to calculate transportation flow between two points, determine the area of influence of a city's businesses, and estimate the flow of migrants to a particular place
gravity model
Geographic Information Systems
incorporate one or more data layers in a computer program capable of spatial analysis and mapping
Global Positioning System
a worldwide network of satellites, which emit a measurable radio system; when this signal is available from three or more Navstar satellites a GPS is able to triangulate a coordinate location and display map data for the user
Aerial photography and satellite-based remote sensing
make up a large amount of the geographic and GIS data used today (2)
Ernest Burgess
Concentric Zone Model: creator
Walter Christaller
Central Place Theory: creator
William Denevan
Native American depopulation: creator
Larry Ford and Ernst Griffin
Latin American city model: creator
Homer Hoyt
Sector model: creator
Thomas Malthus
Malthusian Theory: creator
Friedrich Ratzel
Anthropogeographie, father of human geography
Walt Rostow
Stages of growth: creator
Carl Sauer
Possiblism, cultural landscape: creator
Johann von Thunen
Isolated State model: creator
Alfred Weber
Industrial location theory: creator