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social institutions
are the various organised social arrangements which are found in all societies
social structure
refers to the social institutions and social relationships that form the building blocks of society
the absence of bias or preconceived ideas, it implies that we can look at things as they really are without our opinions or values getting in the way
value freedom
means sociologists should try not to let their prejudices and beliefs influence the way they carry out their research and interpret evidence
the process whereby people learn the attitudes, values and actions appropriate for individuals as members of a particular culture
everything learned and shared by a society or group of people and transmitted from generation to generation through socialisation
the individuals sense of self which is influenced by socialisation and interactions with others
are the patterns of behaviour which are expected from individuals in society
role models
are peoples patterns of behaviour which others copy and model their own behaviour on
role conflict
difficulties that occur when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person
are beliefs about what is right or wrong in a particular society which set standards that should be maintained
are official legal rules that are formally enforced and involve legal punishment if broken
are social rules that define the correct and acceptable behaviour in a society or social group which people should conform to
are norms which have lasted from a long time and have become a part of societies tradition
social control
the techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behaviour in any society
is the failure to conform to social norms
penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm
a social class is
a group of people who share a similar economic situation which was used by max weber
is a flow of money which people obtain from work from their investments or from the state
is property in the form of assets which can be sold and turned into the cash for the benefit of the owner
life chances
are the chances of obtaining things that are classed as desirable as well as avoiding those that are defined as undesirable in society
social mobility
movements of individuals or groups up or down the social hierarchy from one social class to another
the upper class
consists of those who are the main owners of societies wealth
the middle class
consists of those in non manual work jobs that are usually in an office
the working class
consists of those working in manual jobs like factory or labouring work
the underclass is
made up of those who are cut off or excluded from the rest of society
can refer to the role someone holds in society or the amount of social importance a person has in the eyes of other members in a group or society
ascribed status
is status given by birth or family background which usually cannot be changed by individuals
achieved status
is status that is achieved by an individuals own efforts or talents
refers to the shared culture of a social group which gives its members a common identity in some ways different from that of other social groups
a minority ethnic group
is a social group which shares a cultural identity which is different from that of the majority population of a society
refers to the culturally created differences between men and women which are learnt through socialisation
refers to the biological differences between men and women as opposed to culturally created gender differences
a perspective is
a way of looking at something
a sociological perspective
involves a set of theories which influences what is looked at when studying society
is a perspective that is concerned with the overall structure of society and sees individual behaviour being moulded by social institutions
a macro approach
focuses on the large scale structure of society as a whole rather than on individuals
functionalism is
a sociological perspective that sees society as being made up of parts which work together to maintain society as an integrated whole
functional prerequisites
are the basic needs that must be met if society is to survive
value consensus
is a general agreement around the main values and norms of any society
is a structural theory of society which sees society divided by conflict between two main opposing classes due to private ownership of the means of production
the means of production are
the key resources necessary for producing societies goods
the relations of production are
the forms of relationship between the people involved in production and those who control production so cooperation or private ownership and control
is a set of ideas values and beliefs that represent the outlook and justifies the interests of a social group
surplus value
is the extra value added by workers to the products they produce which after allowing for wages goes to the employer as profit
the bourgeoisie is
the class that is made up of the owners of the means of production in industrial societies whose primary goal is to make a profit
the proletariat is
the social class of workers who have to work for wages as they do not own the means of production
labour power refers to
a persons capacity to work people sell their labour power to an employer and receives wages in return
class conflict
is the conflict that arises between different social classes
the ruling class
is the social class who own the means of production and whose power over the economy gives them power over all parts of society
the dominant ideology
is the set of ideas and beliefs of the most powerful groups in society which influences the ideas of the rest of society
false consciousness
is a failure by members of a social class to recognise their real interests
class consciousness
is an awareness in members of a social class of their real interests
refers to an equal society without social classes or class conflict where the means of production belong to everyone
social action theories
are the same as interpretivist theories
interpretivist theories
emphasise the creative action people can take instead of seeing themselves as passive victims of social forces outside of them
determinism is
the idea that peoples behaviour is moulded by their social surroundings and that they have little free will choice or control over how they behave
a micro approach
focuses on small groups or individuals rather than on the structure of society as a whole
symbolic interactionism
is a sociological perspective which is concerned with understanding human behaviour in face to face situations
the process of attaching a definition or meaning to an individual or group
is an approach between structuralism and social action theory that suggests that even though people are constrained by social institutions they are still able to have choice and even support or change the institutions
a sociological perspective and political movement that focuses on womens oppression and the struggle to end it
marxist feminism
emphasises the way in which women are doubly exploited as workers and women
radical feminism
focuses on the problems caused by men and male domination under patriarchy
is a system in which males dominate in every area of society
liberal feminism
focuses on measures to ensure that women have equal opportunities with men in society
new right
stresses individual freedom, self-help and self-reliance
the new right believe in
the reduction of the states power and spending
the new right like the idea
of a free market and allowing free competition between private companies, schools and other institutions
stresses that society is changing rapidly and constantly leading to chaos, uncertainty and risk
postmodernism believe
that society is fragmented into many different groups, interests and lifestyles
a metanarrative
is a broad all embracing theory or explanation for how societies operate
a social problem
is something that is seen as being harmful to society in some way and needs something doing to sort it out
a sociological problem
is any social issue that needs explaining
social policy
refers to packages of plans and actions adopted by national and local government to solve social problems or achieve other goals that are seen as important