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Crime and Deviance

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social control refers to the various methods used to persuade or force individuals
to conform to the dominant social norms and values of a society or group
deviance refers to rule breaking behaviour which
fails to conform to the norms and expectations of a society or social group
crime is the term used to
describe law breaking behaviour
law breaking behaviour is also
known as criminal behaviour
societal deviance refers to acts that are
seen as deviant by members of society
situational deviance refers to acts that are
only defined as deviant in particular contexts
white collar crime refers to offences committed by middle class individuals
who abuse their work positions for personal gain at the expense of the organisation or its clients
corporate crime refers to offences committed by groups or individuals on behalf of large companies
which profit the company involved rather than the individuals
delinquency is crime committed by individuals under the age of eighteen
but it is often used to describe any antisocial or deviant behaviour by youth even if it is not classed as criminal
status frustration is a sense of frustration arising in individuals or groups
as they feel as if they are being denied status by society
techniques of neutralisation are ways of
justifying or excusing acts of crime and deviance
techniques of neutralisation can include
denying responsibility, denying there was a victim and justifying the act based on the circumstances
social exclusion is where people are excluded from aspects of life
and cannot fully participate
aspects of life individuals could be excluded from
include education, work and community life
hegemony describes
the dominance of the ruling classes set of ideas within society
a moral panic is a wave of public concern
about an exaggerated or imaginary threat to society
a moral entrepreneur is a person, group or organisation that has the power to
create or enforce rules as well as their own definitions of deviance
primary deviance is
deviance that has not been publicly labelled
secondary deviance is
deviance that occurs once an individual has been publicly labelled as deviant
a master status is
a status that overrides all other features of a person’s social standing
people are judged purely by their master status
and not other characteristics that they possess
a deviant career is what occurs when people who have been labelled as deviant are blocked from conventional opportunities and proper participation in mainstream society
so are forced into committing further deviance
marginality is where people are pushed to
the margins or edges of society by a range of factors and face social exclusion
factors that can lead to marginality include
poverty, lack of education, disability and racism
hate crimes are those that are perceived by the victim or other people as
being motivated by hostility or prejudice based on a specific trait of an individual
traits that could cause hate crimes include
a person’s sexuality, ethnicity, religion or disability
indictable offences are more serious offences
that can be tried in the crown court or at the magistrates court
summary offences are smaller offences such as
motoring related offences, assault and criminal damage up to five thousand pounds which are usually tried by a magistrates court
institutional racism refers to patterns of discrimination based on ethnicity
that have become structured into social institutions
hegemonic masculinity is a male gender identity that defines what is involved in being a real man
and is so dominant that those who do not conform to it are seen as odd or abnormal
gross domestic product refers to
the total value of goods and services produced by a country in a particular year
agenda setting involves the power to manage which issues are to be presented for public discussion
and which issues are to be kept in the background
news values are the values and assumptions held by editors and journalists
that help guide them to choose what is newsworthy so worth reporting and what should be left out
news values also help determine
how news stories should be presented
folk devils are individuals or groups
that pose an imagined or exaggerated threat to society
deviancy amplification is the way the media make worse or create instances of the deviance that they are condemning
through their exaggerated, sensationalised and distorted reporting of events
restorative justice is a process which brings together the victims of crime and the offenders responsible
in face to face meetings to help repair the damage done and reduce the victim's fear of crime
victimology refers to the study of
the impact of crime on victims and their interests as well as patterns of victimisation